UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|☒||ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
|☐||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
Commission File Number: 001-35493
STEEL PARTNERS HOLDINGS L.P.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State of incorporation)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
590 Madison Avenue, 32nd Floor
New York, New York
|(Address of principal executive offices)||(Zip Code)|
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (212) 520-2300
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of Each Class||Trading Symbols||Name of Each Exchange on which Registered|
|Common units, no par value||SPLP||New York Stock Exchange|
|6.0% Series A Preferred Units||SPLP-PRA||New York Stock Exchange|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Common Units, no par value
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer||☐||Accelerated filer||☐|
|Non-accelerated filer||☒||Smaller reporting company||☒|
|Emerging growth company||☐|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of our common units held by non-affiliates of registrant as of June 30, 2020 totaled approximately $56.5 million based on the then-closing unit price.
On April 9, 2021, there were 22,957,480 common units outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Company's definitive proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Limited Partners are incorporated by reference into Part III of this annual report on Form 10-K.
STEEL PARTNERS HOLDINGS L.P.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
As used in this annual report on Form 10-K (this "Report" or this "Form 10-K"), unless the context otherwise requires, the terms "we," "us," "our," "SPLP" and the "Company" refer to Steel Partners Holdings L.P., a Delaware limited partnership.
All dollar amounts used in this Report are in thousands, except for common and preferred unit and per common and preferred unit data, unless otherwise indicated.
This Report includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("Exchange Act"), including, in particular, forward-looking statements under the headings "Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Item 8 - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data." These statements appear in a number of places in this Report and include statements regarding the Company's intent, belief or current expectations with respect to (i) its financing plans, (ii) trends affecting its financial condition or results of operations, and (iii) the impact of competition. The words "expect," "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "believe," "seek," "estimate" and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements; however, this Report also contains other forward-looking statements in addition to historical information.
Forward-looking statements are only predictions based upon the Company's current expectations and projections about future events. There are important factors that could cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the statements. In particular, investors should read carefully the factors described in the "Risk Factors" in Part I, Item 1A of this Report, as summarized below under "Risk Factors Summary," for information regarding risk factors that could affect the Company's results. Any forward-looking statement made in this Report speaks only as of the date hereof, and investors should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Except as otherwise required by law, the Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, changed circumstances or any other reason.
RISK FACTORS SUMMARY
Our business faces significant risks. In addition to the summary below, you should carefully review the factors described in "Risk Factors" in Part I, Item 1A of this Report. Summary of the risks that might cause actual results to differ from our expectations include, but are not limited to the following:
Risks Related to Our Business
•The novel Coronavirus ("COVID-19") pandemic has adversely affected, and is expected to continue to pose risks to our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
•We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, which could, if not effectively remediated, adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
•Crude oil price declines may have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
•Our results of operations may be adversely affected by fluctuations in commodity prices.
•Certain of the Company's subsidiaries sponsor defined benefit pension plans, which could subject the Company to substantial cash funding requirements in the future.
•We could incur significant costs, including remediation costs, as a result of complying with environmental laws or failing to comply with other extensive regulations, including banking regulations, to which our businesses are subject.
•Climate change legislation or regulations restricting emissions of greenhouse gases ("GHG") could result in increased costs and reduced demand for our services.
•WebBank operates in a highly regulated environment, and its lending programs are subject to extensive federal and state regulation. Ongoing legislative and regulatory actions may significantly affect our liquidity or financial condition.
•Future cash flows from operations or through financings may not be sufficient to enable the Company to meet its obligations under its senior credit facility, and this would likely have a material adverse effect on its businesses, financial condition and results of operations, and credit market volatility may affect our ability to refinance our existing debt, borrow funds under our existing lines of credit or incur additional debt.
•Our business strategy includes acquisitions, and acquisitions entail numerous risks, including the risk of management diversion and increased costs and expenses, all of which could negatively affect the Company's profitability.
•We may sustain losses in our investment portfolio, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
•Rising interest rates may negatively impact our investments and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
•The interest rates of our credit facilities are principally priced using a spread over LIBOR.
•Our businesses rely, and may rely, on their intellectual property and licenses to use others' intellectual property for competitive advantage. If our businesses are unable to protect their intellectual property, are unable to obtain or retain licenses to use others' intellectual property, or if they infringe upon or are alleged to have infringed upon others' intellectual property, it could have a material adverse effect on their financial condition, business and results of operations.
•We conduct business outside of the United States of America ("U.S."), which may expose us to additional risks not typically associated with companies that operate solely in the U.S.
•Recent and potential changes in U.S. trade policies and retaliatory responses from other countries may significantly increase the costs or limit supplies of materials and products used in our operations.
•Litigation or compliance failures could adversely affect our profitability.
•We may be subject to litigation as a result of our packaging business' administration and bankruptcy proceedings.
•A significant disruption in, or breach in security of, our technology systems could adversely affect our business.
•Current and proposed laws and regulations regarding the protection of personal data could result in increased risks of liability or increased cost to us or could limit our service offerings.
•Labor disputes may have an adverse effect on the Company's business.
•Loss of essential employees or an inability to recruit and retain experienced personnel could have a significant negative impact on our business.
•WebBank's status as lender of the loans it offers, and the ability of assignees to collect interest, may be challenged, and these challenges could negatively impact WebBank's ongoing and future business.
•WebBank is subject to capital requirements, and SPLP could be called upon by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") to infuse additional capital into WebBank to the extent that WebBank fails to satisfy its capital requirements.
•WebBank's lending programs depend on relationships with marketing partners.
•WebBank is subject to risks of litigation from its borrowers or others regarding the processing of loans for the Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP") and risks that the Small Business Administration ("SBA") may not fund some or all Paycheck Protection Program loan guaranties.
•Economic downturns in various sectors could disrupt and materially harm our businesses.
•Our subsidiaries do not have long-term contracts with all of their customers, and the loss of customers with which we do not have long-term contracts could materially adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Structure
•The unitholders have limited recourse to maintain actions against our general partner, our board of directors, our officers and our manager.
•Our partnership agreement contains certain provisions that may limit the voting rights of some unitholders.
•We may have conflicts of interest with the minority shareholders of our businesses and decisions may need to be made by disinterested directors, without the participation of directors or officers associated with our manager and the Company. These decisions may be different from the decisions we would make, and may or may not be in the best interests of our unitholders.
•There are certain interlocking relationships among us and certain affiliates of Warren G. Lichtenstein, our Executive Chairman, which may present potential conflicts of interest.
•Certain members of our management team may be involved in other business activities that may involve conflicts of interest, possibly diverting their attention from the Company's operations.
Risks Related to Our Manager
•We depend on Warren G. Lichtenstein, the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and Jack L. Howard, the President of our manager, in running our businesses. The loss of their services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results and financial condition.
•We cannot determine the amount of the management fee that will be paid or Class C partnership units that will be issued over time with any certainty.
•Our manager's liability is limited under our management agreement, and we have agreed to indemnify our manager against certain liabilities. Such indemnification may incentivize our manager to take unnecessary risks with respect to actions for which it will be indemnified.
Risks Related to our Common and Preferred Units
•We may issue additional common or preferred units, or other series of units, in the future without the consent of unitholders and at a discount to the market price of such units. In particular, sales of significant amounts of the common or preferred units may cause the respective prices of the units to decline.
•Transfer restrictions contained in the Company's partnership agreement and other factors could hinder the development of an active market for our common or preferred units.
Risks Related to Taxation
•Our common unitholders may be subject to U.S. federal, state and other income tax on their share of our taxable income, regardless of whether they receive any cash distributions from us.
•The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 ("Centralized Partnership Audit Regime") may subject unitholders to Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") initiated tax adjustments for prior years on their personal tax returns.
•U.S. government tax reform could have a negative impact on the results of future operations.
•Our tax treatment is not assured. If we are taxed as a corporation, it could adversely impact our results of operations.
•Our structure involves complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available.
•Tax-exempt entities face unique tax issues from owning common units that may result in adverse tax consequences to them.
•Our subsidiaries may not be able to fully utilize their tax benefits, which could result in increased cash payments for taxes in future periods.
Item 1. Business
Steel Partners Holding L.P. (together with its subsidiaries, referred to herein as "SPLP") is a diversified global holding company that owns and operates businesses and has significant interests in various companies, including diversified industrial products, energy, banking, defense, direct marketing, supply chain management and logistics and youth sports. SPLP operates through the following segments: Diversified Industrial, Energy, Financial Services, and Corporate and Other. Each of our companies has its own management team with significant experience in their industries. Our subsidiary, Steel Services Ltd ("Steel Services"), through management services agreements, provides services to us and some of our companies, which include assignment of C-Level management personnel, legal, tax, accounting, treasury, consulting, auditing, administrative, compliance, environmental health and safety, human resources, marketing, investor relations, operating group management and other similar services. We work with our businesses to increase corporate value over the long term for all stakeholders by implementing our unique strategy discussed in more detail below.
SPLP is managed by SP General Services LLC ("Manager"), pursuant to the terms of an amended and restated management agreement ("Management Agreement") discussed in further detail in Note 21 – "Related Party Transactions" to the SPLP consolidated financial statements found elsewhere in this Form 10-K. From its founding in 1990, the Manager and its affiliates have focused on increasing value for investors in the businesses it has managed. Our wholly-owned subsidiary, Steel Partners Holdings GP Inc. ("General Partner"), is our general partner. The General Partner has a board of directors ("Board of Directors"). The Board of Directors is currently comprised of eight members, six of whom are elected annually by our unitholders and two of whom are appointed by the Manager. Warren G. Lichtenstein, the Executive Chairman of our Manager, serves as the Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors.
Products and Product Mix
Diversified Industrial Segment
The Diversified Industrial segment is comprised of manufacturers of engineered niche industrial products, with leading market positions in many of the markets they serve. The businesses in this segment distribute products to customers through their sales personnel, outside sales representatives and distributors in North and South America, Europe, Australia, Asia and several other international markets. Below is additional information related to the businesses within the Diversified Industrial segment.
Joining Materials - The Joining Materials business primarily fabricates precious metals and their alloys into brazing alloys. Brazing alloys are used to join similar and dissimilar metals, as well as specialty metals and some ceramics, with strong, hermetic joints. The Joining Materials business offers these metal joining products in a wide variety of alloys, including gold,
silver, palladium, copper, nickel, aluminum and tin. These brazing alloys are fabricated into a variety of engineered forms and are used in many industries, including electrical, appliance, transportation, construction and general industrial, where dissimilar material and metal joining applications are required. Operating income from precious metal products is principally derived from the "value-added" of processing and fabricating and not from the direct purchase and resale of precious metals. The Joining Materials business enters into commodity futures and forward contracts to mitigate the impact of price fluctuations on its precious and certain non-precious metal inventories that are not subject to fixed price contracts.
Tubing - The Tubing business manufactures a wide variety of stainless and low carbon steel tubing products. The Tubing business manufactures some of the world's longest continuous seamless stainless steel tubing coils, up to 6,000 feet, serving primarily the petrochemical and oil and gas infrastructure markets. We believe that the Tubing business is also a leading manufacturer of mechanical and fluid-carrying welded low carbon tubing used for diverse industries, including the automotive, heavy truck, heating, cooling and oil and gas markets. Products are delivered in continuous lengths from 2 inches to 30,000 feet in coil, cut or spool packaging styles.
Building Materials - The Building Materials business manufactures and supplies products primarily to the commercial construction and building industries. It manufactures fasteners, adhesives and fastening systems for the U.S. commercial low-slope roofing industry, which are sold to building and roofing material wholesalers, roofing contractors and private label roofing system manufacturers, and a line of engineered specialty fasteners for the building products industry for fastening applications in the remodeling and construction of homes, decking and landscaping.
Performance Materials - The Performance Materials business manufactures woven substrates of fiberglass, quartz, carbon and aramid materials for specialty applications in a wide expanse of markets requiring highly engineered components. Its products are used in a wide range of advanced composite applications, such as commercial and military aerospace components, printed electronic circuit boards, automotive and industrial components, and substrates for commercial and military armor applications.
Electrical Products - The Electrical Products business designs, manufactures and markets power electronics, motion control, power protection, power quality electromagnetic equipment, and custom ball-screws, gears and gearboxes used in a variety of medical, commercial and military aerospace, computer, datacom, industrial, specialty LED lighting, test and measurement, and telecom applications. Its products are generally incorporated into larger systems to improve operating performance, safety, reliability and efficiency.
Kasco Blades and Route Repair Services ("Kasco") - The Kasco business provides meat-room blade products, repair services and distributed products for the meat and deli departments of supermarkets, restaurants, meat and fish processing plants, and for distributors of electrical saws and cutting equipment, principally in North America and Europe. The Kasco business also provides cutting blades for bakeries, in addition to wood cutting blade products for the pallet manufacturing, pallet recycler and portable saw mill industries in North America.
Metallized Films and Packaging - The Metallized Films business includes Dunmore Corporation in the U.S. and Dunmore Europe GmbH in Germany (collectively, "Dunmore"), which manufacture and distribute coated, laminated and metallized films for engineered applications in the imaging, aerospace, insulation and solar photo-voltaic markets and also provide products for custom and special applications. The Packaging Business included API Group Limited ("API"), which manufactured and distributed foils, films and laminates used to enhance the visual appeal of products and packaging to various industries. On January 31, 2020, the Company announced that API and certain of its affiliates commenced administration proceedings in the United Kingdom ("U.K."). The purpose of the administration proceedings is to facilitate an orderly sale or wind-down of its U.K. operations. In the U.S., API Americas Inc. voluntarily filed for Chapter 11 proceedings in Bankruptcy Court on February 2, 2020 in order to facilitate the sale or liquidation of its business in the U.S. The Company deconsolidated API on January 31, 2020, as it no longer held a controlling financial interest as of that date. Refer to Note 6 - "Discontinued Operations" to the SPLP consolidated financial statements for further information on API.
The Energy segment provides drilling and production services to the oil and gas industry and owns a youth sports business. Below is additional information related to the consolidated businesses within the Energy segment.
Steel Energy - The Energy business provides completion, recompletion and production services to exploration and production companies in the oil and gas business. The services provided include well completion and recompletion, well maintenance and workover, flow testing, down hole pumping, plug and abandonment, well logging and perforating wireline services. The Energy segment primarily provides its services to customers' extraction and production operations in North Dakota
and Montana in the Bakken basin, Colorado and Wyoming in the Niobrara basin, Texas in the Permian basin and New Mexico in the San Juan basin. It relies primarily on its local operations to sell and market its services.
Steel Sports - Steel Sports is a social impact company committed to creating a new standard in youth sports and coaching while forging the next generation of leaders. The organization strives to provide a first-class youth sports experience emphasizing positive experiences and instilling the core values of teamwork, respect, integrity and commitment.
Financial Services Segment
Through our subsidiary WebFinancial Holding Corporation, we own 100% of WebBank, which is an FDIC insured state chartered industrial bank headquartered in Utah. WebBank is subject to comprehensive regulation, examination and supervision of the FDIC and the State of Utah Department of Financial Institutions ("UDFI"). WebBank is not considered a "bank" for Bank Holding Company Act purposes and, as such, SPLP is not regulated as a bank holding company. WebBank's deposits are insured by the FDIC up to maximum allowed by law. WebBank engages in a full range of banking activities including originating loans, issuing credit cards and taking deposits that are federally insured. WebBank originates and funds consumer and small business loans through lending programs with unaffiliated companies that market and service the programs ("Marketing Partners"), where the Marketing Partners subsequently purchase the loans (or interests in the loans) that are originated by WebBank. WebBank also has private-label financing programs that are branded for a specific retailer, manufacturer, dealer channel, proprietary network and bank card programs. WebBank participates in syndicated commercial and industrial as well as asset based credit facilities and asset based securitizations through relationships with other financial institutions. Through its subsidiary, National Partners PFco, LLC ("National Partners"), WebBank provides commercial premium finance solutions for national insurance brokerages, independent insurance agencies and insureds in key markets throughout the U.S. National Partners was acquired in April 2019.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, WebBank issued loans, primarily with one of its lending partners, under the SBA's PPP, authorized under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security ("CARES") Act. As of December 31, 2020, the total PPP loans and associated liabilities are $2,047,769 and $2,090,223, respectively, and are included on the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020.
Corporate and Other
Corporate and Other consists of several consolidated subsidiaries, including Steel Services, as well as equity method and other investments, and cash and cash equivalents. Its income or loss includes certain unallocated general corporate expenses. Steel Services has management services agreements with certain of our consolidated subsidiaries and other related companies. For additional information on these service agreements see Note 21 - "Related Party Transactions" to the SPLP consolidated financial statements found elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
We are focused on reducing costs, including but not limited to our corporate overhead, and the sale of non-core assets. We expect the savings and proceeds will be used to pay down debt and repurchase our units. We continuously evaluate the retention and disposition of existing operations, as well as investigate possible strategic acquisitions. We continue to focus on simplifying our organizational structure and improving our free cash flow and our returns on invested capital.
We strive to enhance the business operations of our companies through balance sheet improvements, strategic allocation of capital, and operational and growth initiatives. We use a set of tools and processes called the Steel Business System to drive operational and commercial efficiencies across each of our businesses. The Steel Business System utilizes a strategy deployment process to execute strategic initiatives for each of our businesses to improve their performance, including objectives relating to manufacturing improvement, idea generation, product development, and global sourcing of materials and services. Our operational initiatives include creating efficiencies through consolidated purchasing and materials sourcing provided by the Steel Partners Purchasing Council, which arranges shared purchasing programs and is reducing costs for, and providing other benefits to, a number of our companies. We are focused on reducing corporate overhead of our companies by centralizing certain administrative and corporate services through Steel Services, which provides management, consulting and advisory services.
The raw materials used by the businesses within the Diversified Industrial segment are as follows:
The Joining Materials business uses precious metals such as silver, gold and palladium to produce certain of its products. These precious metals are generally obtained under a consignment arrangement with a financial institution. In addition to precious metals, the raw materials used in the Joining Materials, Tubing, Building Materials, Electrical Products and Kasco businesses consist principally of stainless, silicon and carbon steel, aluminum, copper, tin, nickel alloys, a variety of high-performance alloys, permanent magnets, electronic and electrical components, chemicals and various plastic compositions. The raw materials used in the operations of the Performance Materials business consist principally of fiberglass, quartz and aramid yarns. The raw materials used in the Metallized Films business consist principally of polyester scrim fabric, PET film, organic solvents, aluminum, resins, pigments and adhesives. Raw materials are generally purchased at open market prices from domestic and foreign suppliers. The Diversified Industrial segment businesses have not experienced any significant problem in obtaining the necessary quantities of raw materials. Prices and availability, particularly of raw materials purchased from foreign suppliers, are affected by world market conditions and government policies. The Company enters into commodity futures and forward contracts to mitigate the impact of price fluctuations on its precious and certain non-precious metal inventories that are not subject to fixed price contracts. The raw materials used by these businesses are generally readily available from more than one source.
The businesses in our Diversified Industrial segment also require significant amounts of electricity, oil and natural gas to operate their facilities, and they are subject to price changes in these commodities. A shortage of electricity, oil or natural gas, or a government allocation of supplies resulting in a general reduction in supplies, could increase costs of production and could cause some curtailment of production.
The Company's businesses depend in part on trademarks and patents that they own, or their licenses to use others' brand names, proprietary technology and manufacturing techniques. In addition to trademark and patent protection, these businesses rely on copyrights, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect their intellectual property rights.
SPLP believes that in order to be and remain competitive, its businesses must continuously strive to increase revenue, improve productivity and product quality, and control and/or reduce manufacturing costs. Accordingly, SPLP expects to continue to make capital investments that reduce overall manufacturing costs, improve the quality of products produced and services provided and broaden the array of products offered to the industries it serves, as well as replace equipment as necessary to maintain compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. SPLP's capital expenditures for 2020 and 2019 were $23,226 and $39,816, respectively. SPLP anticipates funding its capital expenditures in 2021 from funds generated by operations and borrowed funds.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company employed approximately 4,300 employees worldwide. Of these employees, 620 were covered by collective bargaining agreements, all in the Diversified Industrial segment. The Energy segment also hires additional full-time and part-time employees during peak seasonal periods.
Human Capital Management
Human capital management is a key driver of the Company's success, and we are committed to a work environment in which everyone is treated fairly with dignity and respect. The Company's core values are Teamwork, Respect, Integrity and Commitment. By embracing its core values, the Company strives to create an environment where its employees can all be productive, innovative and true to themselves. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics establishes the baseline requirements of our integrity and compliance program and aims to promote an environment where everyone is treated fairly with dignity and respect.
The following programs are crucial to support and work to improve the Company's workplace environment:
•Steel Grow Program: The Company began the Steel Grow initiative (1) to formalize employee development throughout Steel Partners with the goal of identifying its high performing employees and (2) to recruit, retain and reward the best talent available for the Company, in each case, without discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, national origin, citizenship, disability, marital status, pregnancy (including unlawful discrimination on the basis of a legally protected pregnancy/maternity leave), veteran status, genetic information or
any other characteristic protected by law. Management is committed to promoting from within when the opportunity is right for the employee and the Company, and in 2020 we promoted over 300 employees.
•Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Program: In 2020, we conducted a comprehensive Diversity, Equity and Inclusion review in the U.S. with plans for a comprehensive global rollout in 2021. Guided by our core values, we are committed to creating a company where everyone is included and respected, and where we support each other in reaching our full potential individually and as a company.
•Steel Wellness Council: Our Steel Wellness Council, with representatives from all our businesses, focuses on sharing best practices that maximize the overall wellness of employees, empowering them to help create positive change in communities where we work and live. Our initiatives include mental, physical and financial wellbeing along with healthcare education and community support. Community support includes using our coaching system to enhance the education of our employees who coach and lead children in our communities.
•Steel Environmental Health and Safety Council: The Steel Environmental Health and Safety Council is comprised of the health and safety teams at the Company's affiliate companies and representatives from the legal and human resources departments who are dedicated to the safety of our people.
Employee Safety and Well Being
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact lives and businesses worldwide, and the Company continues to take actions to ensure its employees' health and safety. Many of our office workers continue to telecommute; however, where our essential workers continue at our facilities, the Company has established a number of safety protocols, including face coverings, barriers and physical distance requirements, along with enhanced cleaning, temperature checks, work zones and quarantines as situations require. Our COVID-19 Task Force meets regularly to share good practices and create risk mitigation plans and resource guides to safeguard our employees and their families.
There are many companies, larger and smaller, domestic and foreign, which manufacture products or provide services of the type offered by our businesses. Some of these competitors are larger and have financial resources greater than our subsidiaries. Some of these competitors enjoy certain other competitive advantages, including greater name recognition, greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources, a larger installed base of customers and well-established relationships with current and potential customers.
Competition in the Diversified Industrial segment is based on quality, technology, performance, service, reputation, price, and in some industries, new product introduction.
The Energy business operates in a highly competitive industry that is influenced by price, capacity, reputation and experience. In times of high demand, capacity, reputation and experience are major competitive forces. In times of low demand, service providers will compete on price to attract customers. In addition, the Energy business needs to maintain a safe work environment and a well-trained work force to remain competitive. Energy services are affected by seasonal factors, such as inclement weather, fewer daylight hours and holidays during the winter months. Heavy snow, ice, wind or rain can make it difficult to operate and to move equipment between work sites, which can reduce its ability to provide services and generate revenues. These seasonal factors affect competitors as well. Because they have conducted business together over several years, the members of our local operations have established strong working relationships with certain of their clients. These strong client relationships provide a better understanding of region-specific issues and enable us to better address customer needs. The market for Steel Sports' baseball facility services and soccer camps and leagues is very fragmented, and its competitors are primarily small local or regional operations.
WebBank competes with a broad range of banks, both larger and smaller, across its various lines of business.
We are subject to many U.S. federal and state and foreign laws and regulations, including those related to environmental protection, labor, employment, worker health and safety, import and export, customs and tariffs, cybersecurity, intellectual property, privacy and protection of user data. WebBank is also subject to regulatory capital requirements administered by the FDIC and legal requirements in connection with the consumer and business lending programs that it originates.
These laws and regulations are constantly evolving and may be interpreted, applied, created or amended in a manner that could harm our businesses. We believe that we are in compliance in all material respects with all such laws and regulations and that we have obtained all material licenses and permits that are required for the operation of our businesses. For more information regarding regulatory risks, see the information in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors - Risks Related to our Business and Risks Related to Taxation, of this Report and Part II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Environmental Liabilities.
The amounts of revenue, earnings before interest and taxes, and identifiable assets attributable to the aforementioned business segments and additional information regarding SPLP's investments are included in Note 22 - "Segment Information" and Note 11 - "Investments" to the SPLP consolidated financial statements found elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Our common units are quoted on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "SPLP." Our business address is 590 Madison Avenue, 32nd Floor, New York, New York 10022, and our telephone number is (212) 520-2300. Our website is www.steelpartners.com. We use our website as a channel of distribution of company information. The information we post through this channel may be deemed material. Accordingly, investors should monitor this channel, in addition to following our press releases, filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), and public conference calls and webcasts. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, the website is not part of this Form 10-K. This Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports, are available to you free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after those materials have been electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our businesses are subject to a number of risks. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Report, before you decide whether to purchase our common or preferred units. These factors are not intended to represent a complete list of the general or specific risks that may affect us. It should be recognized that other risks may be significant, presently or in the future, and the risks set forth below may affect us to a greater extent than indicated. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our common and preferred units could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected, and is expected to continue to pose risks to our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, and other epidemics or outbreaks of infectious diseases may have a similar impact.
We face risks related to outbreaks of infectious diseases, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 spread across the globe during 2020 and continues to impact economic activity worldwide. COVID-19 has caused disruption and volatility in the global capital markets and precipitated an economic slowdown. In response to COVID-19, national and local governments around the world instituted certain measures, including travel bans, prohibitions on group events and gatherings, shutdowns of certain businesses, quarantines, curfews, shelter-in-place orders, recommendations to practice social distancing and other mandates that substantially restricted individuals' daily activities and curtailed or ceased many businesses' normal operations. As we follow the COVID-19 guidelines from public health and governmental authorities concerning the health and safety of our personnel, these measures have resulted in reduced activity and, in some cases, required temporary closures of certain of our facilities, among other impacts. The duration of these measures is unknown, may be extended and additional measures may be imposed.
These measures and the impact of COVID-19 have had an adverse affect on the Company's results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. In particular, the continued spread of COVID-19 and efforts to contain the virus have:
•impacted customer demand for our businesses' products;
•caused disruptions in or closures of the Company's manufacturing operations or those of its customers and suppliers, (however, as of the filing of this Form 10-K, all of the Company's facilities were open and able to operate at normal capacities);
•caused the Company to experience an increase in costs as a result of the Company's emergency measures, delayed payments from customers and uncollectible accounts;
•caused delays and disruptions in the supply chain resulting in disruptions in the commercial operation of our businesses;
•limited the Company's employees' ability to work and travel and caused many of the Company's employees to work remotely;
•impacted availability of qualified personnel; and
•increased cybersecurity risks as remote working environments may be less secure and more susceptible to hacking attacks, including phishing and social engineering attempts that seek to exploit the COVID-19 pandemic.
Due to the evolving and highly uncertain nature of this event, we cannot predict at this time the full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to impact adversely our business, results and financial condition, which will depend on many factors that are not known at this time. These include, among others, the extent of harm to public health, the continued disruption to the manufacturing of and demand for our businesses' products, and the impact of the global business and economic environment on liquidity and the availability of capital. We are staying in close communication with our employees, customers and suppliers, and acting to mitigate the impact of this dynamic and evolving situation, but there is no guarantee that we will be able to do so.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, which could, if not effectively remediated, adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under the direction of our Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer, management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. As a result of this evaluation, management identified control deficiencies that constituted material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. Because of the material weaknesses identified in 2020, our management concluded that we did not maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020.
These material weaknesses resulted in revisions to our consolidated financial statements for the current year interim and prior annual and interim periods. Accordingly, impacted financial statements have been revised in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. While we believe we have made appropriate judgments in revising restated financial statements, there is a risk that we may have to further restate such financial statements or take other actions not currently contemplated. Additionally, we are actively engaged in developing and implementing a remediation plan designed to address these material weaknesses. Any failure to implement effective internal control could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. Further revisions of our prior financial statements, failure to remediate our internal control or failure to maintain effective internal control in the future, among other things, could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our common and preferred units and limit our ability to raise capital, and may require us to incur additional costs to improve our internal control system. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC and other regulatory authorities or private litigation, which could require additional financial and management resources.
Crude oil prices declined significantly in the first quarter of 2020 and, if oil prices continue to decline or remain at current levels for a prolonged period, our operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
In the first quarter of 2020, crude oil prices fell sharply and dramatically, due in part to significantly decreased demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the announcement by Saudi Arabia of a significant increase in its maximum crude oil production capacity as well as the announcement by Russia that previously agreed upon oil production cuts between members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and its broader partners ("OPEC+") would expire on April 1, 2020, and the ensuing expiration thereof. On April 12, 2020, members of OPEC+ agreed to certain production cuts; however, these cuts were subsequently scaled back in June 2020 and again in December 2020, and the market continues to experience demand loss and uncertainty attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although oil prices have made a partial recovery since the first quarter of 2020, the collapse in the demand for oil caused by this unprecedented global health and economic crisis, coupled with oil oversupply and the lack of available storage capacity, has had, and is reasonably likely to continue to have, a significant adverse impact on demand for the services of our Energy segment. The decline in our customers' demand for such services has had, and is likely to continue to have for the foreseeable future, a significant adverse impact on the Company's financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our results of operations are affected by fluctuations in commodity prices.
In the normal course of business, our operations, particularly those of our Diversified Industrial segment, are exposed to market risk or price fluctuations related to the purchase of commodities used as raw materials, such as precious metals, steel products and certain non-ferrous metals. The availability of, and prices for, these raw materials are subject to volatility and are influenced by worldwide economic conditions, speculative action, world supply and demand balances, inventory levels, availability of substitute metals, the U.S. dollar exchange rate, production costs of U.S. and foreign competitors, anticipated or perceived shortages, and other factors. Precious metal prices, including prices for gold and silver, have fluctuated significantly in recent years.
Higher commodity prices increase our costs of production and, to the extent customers delay or decrease their purchases of our products as a result of cost increases or we are otherwise unable pass cost increases on to our customers, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely effected. The Company is also exposed to the effects of price fluctuations on the value of its commodity inventories, in particular, its precious metal inventory. Adjustments to our inventory carrying values could have a negative impact on our profitability and cash flows. Additionally, if commodity prices significantly decline for a sustained period of time, the net realizable value of our existing inventories could be reduced or we may have to take impairments on our inventories, and our results of operations could be adversely affected. For more information, see Part II, Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Risks Relating to Commodity Prices.
Certain of the Company's subsidiaries sponsor defined benefit pension plans, which could subject the Company to substantial cash funding requirements in the future.
The Company's ongoing operating cash flow requirements include arranging for the funding of the minimum requirements of its subsidiaries' defined benefit pension plans. The Company is generally jointly and severally liable for such subsidiaries' underfunded pension liabilities. The performance of the financial markets and interest rates (given the mix of investment assets in the plan), as well as health care trends and associated mortality rates, impact our defined benefit pension plan expense and funding obligations. Significant changes in these factors, including adverse changes in discount rates, investment losses on plan assets and increases in participant life expectancy, may increase our funding obligations and adversely impact our financial condition. Required future contributions are estimated based upon assumptions such as discount rates on future obligations, assumed rates of return on plan assets and legislative changes. Actual future pension costs and required funding obligations will be affected by changes in the factors and assumptions described in the previous sentences, as well as other changes such as any plan termination or other acceleration events. See Part II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources for additional information.
We could incur significant costs, including remediation costs, as a result of complying with environmental laws or failing to comply with other extensive regulations, including banking regulations, to which our businesses are subject.
Our businesses are subject to extensive regulation by U.S. and non-U.S. governmental and self-regulatory entities at the federal, state and local levels, including laws related to anti-corruption, environmental matters, privacy matters, banking, health and safety, import laws and export control and economic sanctions, and the sale of products and services to government entities. Some of these laws and regulations pertain to the handling, storage and transportation of raw materials, products and wastes, and hazardous materials and wastes. Compliance with such requirements may make it necessary for us to retrofit existing facilities with additional pollution-control equipment, undertake new measures in connection with the storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of by-products and wastes or to take other steps, which may be at a substantial cost to our subsidiaries. Although our subsidiaries maintain insurance coverage for certain environmental matters, they could incur substantial costs, including cleanup costs, fines or sanctions, and third-party claims for property damage or personal injury, as a result of violations of, or liabilities under, environmental laws. Any material violations of these laws can lead to substantial liability, revocations of discharge permits, fines or penalties, and any new laws, regulations and enforcement policies could become more stringent and significantly increase our compliance costs or limit our future business opportunities, negatively impacting our financial condition, business and results of operations.
In addition, the consumer and business lending programs offered by WebBank are subject to extensive legal requirements at the federal and state levels, described in more detail below. If WebBank or its programs do not comply with these laws, it may be subject to claims for damages, fines, penalties or other relief, and may face regulatory examination and enforcement action, and some violations could result in an underlying loan being found invalid or unenforceable, or subject to payment defenses.
Many of the customers in our Energy segment utilize hydraulic fracturing services, which is the process of creating or expanding cracks, or fractures, in formations underground where water, sand and other additives are pumped under high pressure into the formation. Although our Energy segment is not a provider of hydraulic fracturing services, many of its services complement the hydraulic fracturing process. Fracturing regulations vary widely because they are regulated at the state level. States continue to evaluate fracturing activities and their impact on the environment. Legislation for broader federal regulation of hydraulic fracturing operations and the reporting and public disclosure of chemicals used in the fracturing process could be enacted. Additionally, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") has asserted federal regulatory authority over certain hydraulic fracturing activities involving diesel fuel under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Our Energy segment's customers' operations could be adversely affected if additional regulation or permitting requirements were to be required for hydraulic fracturing activities, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
As discussed above, our businesses must comply with substantial additional regulations. Failure to comply with these or any other regulations could result in civil and criminal, monetary and non-monetary penalties, disruptions to our business, limitations on our ability to manufacture, import, export and sell products and services, disbarment from selling to certain federal agencies, damage to our reputation and loss of customers and could cause us to incur significant legal and investigatory fees. Compliance with these and other regulations may also require us to incur significant expenses. The products and operations of our businesses are also often subject to the rules of industrial standards bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and failure to comply with these rules could result in withdrawal of certifications needed to sell our products and services and otherwise adversely impact our financial condition.
Climate change legislation or regulations restricting emissions of greenhouse gases could result in increased costs and reduced demand for our services in our Energy business.
U.S. federal, regional and state, in addition to international and multilateral, government bodies are taking actions to monitor, limit, restrict and/or eliminate emissions of GHG. Our Energy business's operations, as well as the operations of its customers, are therefore subject to multifaceted risks linked to the production and processing of fossil fuels and emissions of GHG.
In the U.S., no comprehensive climate change legislation has been implemented federally. However, the EPA has adopted rules that, among other things, establish construction and operating permit reviews for GHG emissions from certain large stationary sources, require the monitoring and reporting of GHG emissions from certain petroleum and natural gas system sources, implement standards directing the reduction of methane from certain facilities in the oil and gas sector, and together with the U.S. Department of Transportation, implement GHG emissions limits on vehicles manufactured for operation domestically. Additionally, various states have adopted or are considering adopting legislation and regulation focused on GHG cap and trade programs, carbon taxes, reporting and tracking programs and emissions limits. U.S. President Joseph Biden administration's nascent climate agenda focuses on the federal government's regulatory efforts to reduce GHG emissions from stationary and mobile sources, including a recent pause on new federal leasing for oil and gas development. Fossil fuel producers also face increasing litigation risks from local governments and financial risks from liquidity sources that have become more attentive to sustainability, such as shareholders who may shift their investments into other sectors and institutional lenders who may stop funding fossil fuel companies.
These changes in the investing and financing markets, and adoption and implementation of new or more stringent GHG-related legislation or regulation on the oil and gas sector, may increase costs or reduce demand for oil and gas businesses, which could in turn reduce demand for our Energy business's well servicing, workover and other services. Additionally, political, litigation and financial risks may result in the oil and gas customers of our Energy business restricting or cancelling production activities, incurring liability in connection with climate-related changes or impairing their ability to continue operating economically, which also could lower demand for that business's services. Thus, one or more of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our Energy business's financial condition and/or results of operations.
WebBank operates in a highly regulated environment, and its lending programs are subject to extensive federal and state regulation. Ongoing legislative and regulatory actions may significantly affect our liquidity or financial condition.
The consumer and business lending programs offered by WebBank are subject to extensive legal requirements at the federal and state levels. Among the laws that may be applicable to some or all of the programs offered by WebBank are:
•the Federal Truth in Lending Act and Regulation Z promulgated thereunder, which require certain disclosures to borrowers regarding the terms of their loans;
•the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act ("Dodd-Frank Act"), the Federal Trade Commission Act and state laws that prohibit unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices;
•the Federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Regulation B promulgated thereunder, which prohibit discrimination in the extension of credit on the basis of age, race, color, sex, religion, marital status, national origin, receipt of public assistance or the exercise of any right under the Consumer Credit Protection Act;
•the Fair Credit Reporting Act, which governs the use of credit reports and the reporting of information to credit bureaus, and imposes restrictions on the marketing of credit products through prescreened solicitations based on credit report information;
•the Electronic Fund Transaction Act and Regulation E promulgated thereunder, which requires certain disclosures and imposes certain requirements on banks that provide electronic transfers of funds for consumers;
•the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act and the Military Lending Act, which impose rate limitations and other requirements in connection with the credit obligations of active duty military personnel and certain of their dependents;
•federal and state laws relating to privacy and the safeguarding of personally identifiable consumer information and data breach notification;
•the Bank Secrecy Act, which relates to compliance with anti-money laundering, customer due diligence and record-keeping policies and procedures; and
•laws governing the permissibility of the interest rates and fees that are charged to borrowers.
The Dodd-Frank Act, which was signed into law in 2010, is intended primarily to overhaul the financial regulatory framework and impacts all financial institutions, including WebBank. The Dodd-Frank Act, among other things, established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") and Financial Stability Oversight Council, consolidated certain federal bank regulators and imposed increased corporate governance and executive compensation requirements. The Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act, which was signed into law in May 2018, amended the Dodd-Frank Act in some respects, but many of the requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act remain in effect. The extent and complexity of this regulatory framework and other regulations has increased WebBank's regulatory compliance burden and therefore has increased its regulatory risk.
If WebBank or its programs do not comply with these laws, it may be subject to claims for damages, fines, penalties or other relief, and may face regulatory scrutiny. In addition, some violations could result in an underlying loan being found invalid or unenforceable, or subject to payment defenses. Any of these violations could result in the imposition of liability on WebBank, although WebBank may have indemnification rights for certain claims. In addition, there could be limitations on WebBank's ongoing or future business.
WebBank offers lending programs through relationships with Marketing Partners. WebBank and its Marketing Partners are subject to supervision by the FDIC and the UDFI. The authority of the FDIC and the UDFI includes the ability to examine WebBank, the Marketing Partners and the programs. The FDIC and UDFI also may bring enforcement actions against WebBank and its Marketing Partners if they detect any violations of law. These enforcement actions could result in monetary liability on WebBank, increased compliance obligations or limitations on its ongoing and future business.
Other regulators, including the CFPB and the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC"), may bring investigations and enforcement actions against WebBank's Marketing Partners. In 2018, the FTC brought such an enforcement action against one of WebBank's Marketing Partners, which remains ongoing. In 2019, the FTC reached a settlement with another WebBank Marketing Partner, in which the Marketing Partner agreed to change certain practices and to pay $3,850 to the FTC as equitable monetary relief. These actions against Marketing Partners may increase WebBank's own regulators' scrutiny of WebBank's business and could result in an increased risk of investigations or claims being brought against WebBank.
The U.S. Congress and state legislatures and federal and state regulatory authorities continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. The new presidential administration has installed a new Acting Director of the CFPB and nominated a new Director who, as of April 12, 2021, is subject to Senate confirmation. The CFPB may revise or enact new regulatory requirements or revise or adopt new regulatory interpretations that could affect WebBank, its Marketing Partners and programs. The new administration may make other agency changes that could also affect WebBank. The FDIC recently adopted a final rule codifying its practices for supervising certain industrial banks and their parent companies. Although the rule does not directly apply to us or to WebBank at this time, the potential impact that the rule may have on our business, financial condition or results of operations in the future remains uncertain. We cannot predict whether additional legislation or regulations will be enacted and, if enacted, the effect that it would have on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Future cash flows from operations or through financings may not be sufficient to enable the Company to meet its obligations under its senior credit facility, and this would likely have a material adverse effect on its businesses, financial
condition and results of operations, and credit market volatility may affect our ability to refinance our existing debt, borrow funds under our existing lines of credit or incur additional debt.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had $336,289 available under its senior credit facility and $332,350 of outstanding indebtedness under this credit facility. There can be no assurances that the Company or its subsidiaries will continue to have access to their lines of credit if their financial performance does not satisfy the financial covenants set forth in the applicable financing agreements. If the Company or its subsidiaries do not meet certain of its financial covenants, and if they are unable to secure necessary waivers or other amendments from the respective lenders on terms acceptable to management, their ability to access available lines of credit could be limited, their debt obligations could be accelerated by the respective lenders and liquidity could be adversely affected.
If the Company's or its subsidiaries' cash needs are significantly greater than anticipated or they do not materially meet their business plans, or there are unanticipated downturns in the markets for the Company's and its subsidiaries' products and services, the Company or its subsidiaries may be required to seek additional or alternative financing sources. Future disruption and volatility in credit market conditions could have a material adverse impact on the Company's ability or that of its subsidiaries to refinance debt when it comes due on terms similar to our current credit facilities, or to draw upon existing lines of credit or incur additional debt if needed. There can be no assurance therefore that any such financing will be available or available on acceptable terms. The inability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations or through financings could impair the Company's or its subsidiaries' liquidity and would likely have a material adverse effect on their businesses, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business strategy includes acquisitions, and acquisitions entail numerous risks, including the risk of management diversion and increased costs and expenses, all of which could negatively affect the Company's profitability.
Our business strategy includes, among other things, strategic acquisitions, as well as potential opportunistic acquisitions. This element of our strategy entails several risks, including the diversion of management's attention from other business concerns and the need to finance such acquisitions with additional equity and/or debt.
In addition, once completed, acquisitions entail further risks, including: unanticipated costs and liabilities of the acquired businesses, including environmental liabilities, that could materially adversely affect our results of operations; increased regulatory compliance relating to the acquired business; difficulties in assimilating acquired businesses, their personnel and their financial reporting systems, which would prevent the expected benefits from the transaction from being realized within the anticipating time frame; negative effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers; and loss of key employees of the acquired businesses. In addition, any future acquisitions could result in the incurrence of additional debt and related interest expense, contingent liabilities and amortization expense related to intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows, or the issuance of additional equity, which could dilute our unitholders' interests.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to negotiate any pending acquisition successfully (including our proposed acquisition of all outstanding shares of common stock of Steel Connect, Inc. ("Steel Connect"), for which we have sent a non-binding expression of interest), receive the required approvals for any acquisition or otherwise conclude any acquisition successfully, or that any acquisition will achieve the anticipated synergies or other positive results. If our acquisition strategy is not successful or if acquisitions are not well integrated into our existing operations, the Company's profitability, business and financial condition could be negatively affected.
We may sustain losses in our investment portfolio, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
A portion of our assets consists of equity securities which are adjusted to fair value each period, as well as other investments. An adverse change in economic conditions or setbacks unique to such companies, their operations or business models may result in a decline in the value of these investments. Such declines in value are principally recognized in net income or loss in accordance with current accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. ("U.S. GAAP"). Any adverse changes in the financial markets and declines in value of our investments may result in additional losses and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Rising interest rates may negatively impact our investments and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Changes in interest rates could have an adverse impact on our business by increasing the cost of borrowing, affecting our interest costs and our ability to make new investments on favorable terms or at all. More generally, interest rate fluctuations and changes in credit spreads on floating rate loans may have a negative impact on our investments and investment opportunities and, accordingly, may have a material adverse effect on our rate of return on invested capital, our net investment income, our net asset value and the market price of our securities. In addition, an increase in interest rates may make it difficult or impossible to make payments on outstanding indebtedness. Any increase in interest rates could have a negative effect on our interest costs and investments, which could negatively impact our operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
As more fully described in Part II, Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk of this Report, WebBank derives a portion of its income from the excess of interest collected over interest paid. The rates of interest WebBank earns on assets and pays on liabilities generally are established contractually for a period of time. Market interest rates change over time. Accordingly, WebBank's results of operations, like those of most financial institutions, are impacted by changes in interest rates and the interest rate sensitivity of its assets and liabilities. WebBank monitors and measures its exposure to changes in interest rates in order to comply with applicable government regulations and to limit the risk that changing interest rates could have a negative impact on its results of operations. There can be no assurance, however, that, in the event of adverse changes in interest rates, WebBank's efforts to limit interest rate risk will be successful.
The interest rates of our credit facilities are principally priced using a spread over LIBOR.
LIBOR, the London Interbank Offered Rate, is the basic rate of interest used in lending between banks on the London interbank market and is widely used as a reference for setting the interest rate on loans globally. We typically use LIBOR as a reference rate in our credit facilities such that the interest due to our lenders is calculated using LIBOR. Most of our credit facilities contain a stated minimum value for LIBOR, and as of December 31, 2020, the Company had $333,523 in outstanding indebtedness tied to LIBOR.
In 2017, the U.K.'s Financial Conduct Authority ("FCA"), which regulates the LIBOR administrator, previously announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021. However, for U.S. dollar LIBOR, it now appears that the relevant date may be deferred to June 30, 2023 for the most common tenors (overnight and one, three, six and 12 months). As to those tenors, the LIBOR administrator has published a consultation regarding its intention to cease publication of U.S. dollar LIBOR as of June 30, 2023 (instead of December 31, 2021, as previously expected), apparently based on continued rate submissions from banks. The FCA and other regulators have stated that they welcome the LIBOR administrator's action. An extension to 2023 would mean that many legacy U.S. dollar LIBOR contracts would terminate before related LIBOR rates cease to be published. However, the same regulators emphasized that, despite any continued publication of U.S. dollar LIBOR through June 30, 2023, no new contracts using U.S. dollar LIBOR should be entered into after December 31, 2021. Moreover, the LIBOR administrator's consultation also relates to the LIBOR administrator's intention to cease publication of non-U.S. dollar LIBOR after December 31, 2021. Although the foregoing may provide some sense of timing, there is no assurance that LIBOR, of any particular currency and tenor, will continue to be published until any particular date. It is unclear if new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist or if replacement conventions will be developed. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, is considering replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities ("SOFR"). SOFR is observed and backward-looking, which stands in contrast with LIBOR under the current methodology, which is an estimated forward-looking rate and relies, to some degree, on the expert judgment of submitting panel members. Given that SOFR is a secured rate backed by government securities, it will be a rate that does not take into account bank credit risk (as is the case with LIBOR). Whether or not SOFR attains market traction as a LIBOR replacement tool remains in question. As such, the future of LIBOR is uncertain. At this time, due to a lack of consensus existing as to what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, it is impossible to predict the effect of any such alternatives on our liquidity or interest expense. If LIBOR ceases to exist, we may need to renegotiate our credit agreements that utilize LIBOR as a factor in determining the interest rate to replace LIBOR with the new standard that is established. Additionally, these changes may have an adverse impact on the amount of interest earned on the Company's loan portfolio.
Our businesses rely, and may rely, on their intellectual property and licenses to use others' intellectual property for competitive advantage. If our businesses are unable to protect their intellectual property, are unable to obtain or retain licenses to use others' intellectual property, or if they infringe upon or are alleged to have infringed upon others' intellectual property, it could have a material adverse effect on their financial condition, business and results of operations.
The success of each of our businesses depends in part on the trademarks and patents that they own, or their licenses to use others', brand names, proprietary technology and manufacturing techniques. In addition to trademark and patent protection, these businesses rely on copyrights, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect their intellectual property rights. The steps they have taken to protect their intellectual property rights may not prevent third parties, including our competitors, from using their intellectual property without their authorization or independently developing intellectual property that is similar. In addition, the laws of foreign countries may not protect our businesses' intellectual property rights effectively. Stopping unauthorized use of proprietary information and intellectual property, and defending claims of unauthorized use of others' proprietary information or intellectual property, may be difficult, time-consuming and costly and could subject our businesses to significant liability for damages and invalidate their property rights. We cannot provide assurance that courts will always uphold our businesses' intellectual property rights or enforce the contractual arrangements that they have entered into to obtain and protect their proprietary technology. Such unauthorized use could reduce or eliminate any competitive advantage our businesses have developed, cause them to lose sales or otherwise harm their business.
We conduct business outside of the U.S., which may expose us to additional risks not typically associated with companies that operate solely in the U.S.
We conduct business and have operations or own interests in securities of companies with operations outside the U.S. These operations have additional risks, including risks relating to currency exchange, changes in tariffs, less developed or efficient financial markets than in the U.S., absence of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, differences in the legal and regulatory environment, different publicly available information in respect of companies in non-U.S. markets, economic and political risks, public health crises (such as the ongoing coronavirus outbreak) and possible imposition of non-U.S. taxes. We may also be adversely affected by regulatory changes and economic conditions following "Brexit" (the U.K.'s exit from the European Union ("E.U."), which took effect on January 31, 2020) and the implementation of the E.U.-U.K. Trade and Cooperation Agreement beginning January 1, 2021, including uncertainties as to its effect on trade laws, tariffs and taxes, which could create instability and volatility in the global financial and currency markets. There can be no assurance that adverse developments with respect to such risks will not adversely affect our assets that are held in certain countries or the returns from these assets.
We also face several risks inherent in conducting business internationally, including compliance with international and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations. These laws and regulations include data privacy requirements, labor relations laws, tax laws, anti-competition regulations, import and trade restrictions, U.S. laws such as export control laws and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and similar laws in other countries which also prohibit corrupt payments to governmental officials or certain payments or remunerations to customers. Given the high level of complexity of these laws, there is a risk that some provisions may be inadvertently breached. Also, we may be held liable for actions taken by our local partners. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, administrative remedies and prohibitions on the conduct of our business. Any such violations could include prohibitions on our ability to offer our products and services in one or more countries.
Recent and potential changes in U.S. trade policies and retaliatory responses from other countries may significantly increase the costs or limit supplies of materials and products used in our operations.
The federal government has created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the U.S. and other countries with respect to trade policies, taxes, government regulations and tariffs. The former U.S. presidential administration signaled support for implementing and, in some instances, proposed or took action with respect to major changes to certain trade policies in an effort to encourage U.S. production, including tariffs on imports from China, Mexico, Canada and other countries. These new or increased tariffs or duties were imposed on an array of imported materials and goods used in connection with our operations. Foreign governments have responded by imposing or increasing tariffs, duties and/or trade restrictions on U.S. goods and may consider other measures. However, it remains unclear what additional actions, if any, will be taken by the new U.S. administration or other governments with respect to international trade agreements, the imposition of tariffs on goods imported into the U.S., tax policy related to international commerce or other trade matters. These trade conflicts and related escalating governmental actions that result in additional tariffs, duties and/or trade restrictions could increase our operating costs, cause disruptions or shortages in our supply chains and/or negatively impact the U.S., regional or local economies, and, individually or in the aggregate, materially and adversely affect our business and our consolidated financial results.
Litigation or compliance failures could adversely affect our profitability.
The nature of our businesses and our investment strategies expose us to various litigation matters. We contest these matters vigorously and make insurance claims where appropriate. However, litigation is inherently costly and unpredictable,
making it difficult to accurately estimate the outcome of any litigation. These lawsuits may include claims for compensatory damages, punitive and consequential damages and/or injunctive relief. The defense of these lawsuits may divert our management's attention, we may incur significant expenses in defending these lawsuits, and we may be required to pay damage awards or settlements or become subject to equitable remedies that could adversely affect our operations and financial condition. Moreover, any insurance or indemnification rights that we may have may be insufficient or unavailable to protect us against such losses. In addition, developments in legal proceedings in any given period may require us to adjust the loss contingency estimates that we have recorded in our consolidated financial statements, record estimates or reserves for liabilities or assets previously not susceptible of reasonable estimates or pay cash settlements or judgments. Any of these developments could adversely affect our financial condition in any particular period. Although we make accruals as we believe warranted, the amounts that we accrue could vary significantly from any amounts we actually pay due to the inherent uncertainties in the estimation process. See the "Litigation Matters" included in Note 20 - "Commitments and Contingencies" to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Report for additional information.
We may be subject to litigation as a result of our packaging business' administration and bankruptcy proceedings.
As previously disclosed in our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2019, declines in the financial and operating results of our packaging business resulted in non-cash goodwill impairment charges. The packaging business continued to decline during the fourth quarter of 2019. API and certain of its affiliates commenced administration proceedings in the U.K. on January 31, 2020, and API Americas Inc. commenced bankruptcy proceedings in the U.S. on February 2, 2020 (collectively, "Proceedings"). Negative events or publicity associated with the Proceedings could adversely affect relationships with our suppliers, service providers, customers, employees and other third parties, which in turn could adversely affect our operations and financial condition. In addition, we may be subject to increased litigation risks as a result of the Proceedings, including litigation by third-parties with respect to the treatment of their claims. The defense of any such litigation may divert our management's attention, and we may incur significant expenses in defending these lawsuits. It is not possible to predict the potential litigation that we may become party to, nor the final result of such litigation. The impact of any such litigation could be material.
A significant disruption in, or breach in security of, our technology systems could adversely affect our business.
We rely on information and operational technology systems in the conduct of our business to process, transmit and store electronic information, to manufacture our products and to manage or support a variety of critical business processes and activities. In some cases, we may rely upon third-party providers of hosting, support and other services to meet our information technology requirements. Our information and operational technology systems are subject to disruption, damage or failure from a variety of sources, including, without limitation, computer viruses, security breaches, cyber-attacks, natural disasters and defects in design. Cybersecurity incidents in particular are evolving and include, but are not limited to, use of malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data or control of automated production systems, and other security breaches that could lead to disruptions in systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information and the corruption of data. Various measures have been implemented to manage our risks related to technology systems and network disruptions. However, given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of technology security incidents and disruptions, our businesses have been, and could potentially be, subject to production downtimes, operational delays, the compromising of confidential or otherwise protected information, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, theft, other manipulation or improper use of our systems and networks or financial losses from remedial actions, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, financial condition, reputation or results of operations. We have experienced, and could experience in the future, actual or attempted cyber-attacks of our information technology systems or networks, yet none of these actual or attempted cyber-attacks has had a material effect on our operations or financial condition. Further, any failure by our hosting and support partners or other third-party service providers in the performance of their services could materially harm our business. While we maintain cybersecurity insurance coverage that we believe is adequate for our business, such coverage may not cover all potential costs and expenses associated with any security incidents that may occur in the future.
A breach of our information technology systems could also result in the misappropriation of intellectual property, business plans or trade secrets. Any failure of our systems or those of our third-party service providers could result in unauthorized access or acquisition of such proprietary information, and any actual or perceived security breach could cause significant damage to our reputation and adversely impact our relationships with our customers. Additionally, while our security systems are designed to maintain the physical security of our facilities and information systems, accidental or willful security breaches or other unauthorized access by third parties to our facilities or our information systems could lead to misappropriation of proprietary and confidential information.
If any person, including any of our employees or those with whom we share such information, negligently disregards or intentionally breaches our established controls with respect to our client, customer or employee data, or otherwise mismanages or misappropriates that data, we could be subject to significant monetary damages, litigation, regulatory enforcement actions, fines and/or criminal prosecution in one or more jurisdictions.
We take cybersecurity seriously and devote significant resources and tools to protect our systems, products and data and to prevent unwanted intrusions and disclosures, in compliance with applicable U.S. federal and state laws and non-U.S. laws and regulations addressing cybersecurity. However, these security and compliance efforts are costly to implement and may not be successful. There can be no assurance that we will be able to prevent, detect and adequately address or mitigate such cyber-attacks or security breaches. Any such breach could have a material adverse effect on our operations and our reputation and could cause irreparable damage to us or our systems, regardless of whether we or our third-party providers are able to adequately recover critical systems following a systems failure.
Current and proposed laws and regulations regarding the protection of personal data could result in increased risks of liability or increased cost to us or could limit our service offerings.
Some of our businesses collect and store personal data and any security breaches of our systems could result in the misappropriation or unauthorized disclosure of personal data belonging to us or to our employees, partners, customers or suppliers. The regulatory environment surrounding information security and privacy is increasingly demanding. We are subject to numerous U.S. federal and state laws and non-U.S. laws and regulations governing the privacy, security and protection of personal and confidential information of our customers and employees. In particular, the E.U. has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which contains numerous requirements for processing personal data of, and honoring the exercise of GDPR specific rights by, E.U.-based data subjects and provides for penalties up to the greater of €20,000 or 4% of worldwide gross revenue for violation. We are subject to the GDPR with respect to our E.U. operations and employees. Privacy laws such as the GDPR and similar laws and regulations are increasing in complexity and number, change frequently and sometimes conflict. In particular, as the E.U. states reframe their national legislation to harmonize with the GDPR, we will need to monitor compliance with all relevant E.U. member states' laws and regulations, including where permitted derogations from the GDPR are introduced. In addition, in 2018 the state of California enacted a comprehensive data privacy law that grants new rights to California residents, and that law was amended by a ballot initiative in 2020. Additional laws may be enacted in other states or at the U.S. federal level. The GDPR, any resultant changes in E.U. member states' national laws and regulations, and existing or new U.S. state or federal data privacy laws and regulations may increase our compliance obligations and may necessitate the review and implementation of policies and processes relating to our collection, security and use of data.
This increase in compliance obligations could also lead to an increase in compliance costs which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, failure to comply with these data protection and privacy regulations and rules in various jurisdictions, or to resolve any serious privacy or security complaints, could subject us to regulatory sanctions, criminal prosecution or civil liability. Additionally, if we violate applicable laws, regulations or duties relating to the use, privacy or security of personal data, we could be subject to civil liability or criminal prosecution, be forced to alter our business practices and suffer reputational harm.
Labor disputes may have an adverse effect on the Company's business.
Some of our businesses are party to collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions in the U.S. and internationally. For more information, see Part I, Item 1, Business - Employees. We may be subject to, among other things, strikes, work stoppages or work slowdowns as a result of disputes under these collective bargaining agreements and labor contracts or our potential inability to negotiate acceptable contracts with these unions. If the unionized workers in the U.S. or internationally were to engage in a strike, work stoppage or other slowdown; if other employees were to become unionized or if the terms and conditions in future labor agreements were renegotiated, our businesses could experience a significant disruption in their operations, which could cause them to be unable to deliver products to customers on a timely basis. Such disruptions could also result in loss of business and higher ongoing labor costs.
Additionally, we believe some of our direct and indirect suppliers have unionized workforces. Strikes, work stoppages or slowdowns experienced by suppliers could result in slowdowns or closures of facilities where components of our products are manufactured or delivered. Any interruption in the production or delivery of these components could reduce sales, increase costs and have a material adverse effect on us.
Loss of essential employees or an inability to recruit and retain experienced personnel could have a significant negative impact on our business.
Our success is largely dependent on the skills, experience and efforts of our management and other employees. The loss of the services of one or more members of our senior management or of numerous employees with essential skills could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are not able to retain or attract talented, committed individuals to fill vacant positions when needs arise, it may adversely affect our ability to achieve our business objectives.
We may also face difficulty hiring and retaining experienced employees. Continued economic expansion and reductions in unemployment rates and the tightening of labor markets could increase the cost of operating any or all of our businesses or make it more difficult to recruit and retain those with appropriate skillsets. In a tight labor market, it may take longer to identify and hire additional employees, and such delays could, in turn, increase fees paid to recruiting firms or the amount of overtime paid to existing employees. A tightening labor market may also drive the cost of retaining employees with appropriate skillsets higher to the extent we face increased competition from employers willing or able to pay higher wages.
We rely on an adequate supply of skilled employees at our businesses. Trained and experienced personnel in our businesses' industries are in high demand. We cannot predict whether we will be able to attract, motivate and maintain an adequate skilled workforce necessary to operate our existing and future businesses efficiently, or that labor expenses will not increase as a result of a shortage in the supply of skilled personnel, thereby adversely impacting our financial performance. While our businesses generally operate with high employee turnover, any material increases in employee turnover rates or any widespread employee dissatisfaction could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
WebBank's status as lender of the loans it offers, and the ability of assignees to collect interest, may be challenged, and these challenges could negatively impact WebBank's ongoing and future business.
WebBank's business includes lending programs with Marketing Partners, where the Marketing Partners provide origination servicing for the loans and subsequently purchase the loans (or interests in the loans) that are originated by WebBank. There have been litigation and regulatory actions which have challenged lending arrangements where a bank has made a loan and then sold and assigned it to an entity that is engaged in assisting with the origination and servicing of the loan. Some of these cases have alleged that the marketing and servicing entity should be viewed as the "true creditor" of the loans originated through the lending program, and the bank should be disregarded. If this type of challenge is successful, state law interest rate limitations and other requirements that apply to non-bank lenders would then be applicable, instead of the federal interest rate laws that govern bank lenders. Other cases have relied on the claim that even if a bank originated a loan based on the federal interest rate laws, an assignee of a bank is not permitted to rely on the federal law and is instead subject to state law limitations. Certain of these challenges have been brought or threatened in programs involving WebBank. In August 2020, WebBank and other defendants agreed to a resolution of litigation brought by the Administrator of the Uniform Consumer Credit Code in Colorado. The defendants agreed to collectively pay $1,050 to the state and $500 to support a financial literacy program, and to make changes to their programs which the Administrator agreed would provide a safe harbor for ongoing compliance with Colorado laws. Additional cases or regulatory actions of this type, if successfully brought against WebBank or its Marketing Partners or others, could negatively impact WebBank's ongoing and future business. WebBank continues to structure its programs, and to exercise control over these programs, to address these risks, although there can be no assurance that additional cases or regulatory actions will not be brought in the future.
WebBank is subject to capital requirements, and SPLP could be called upon by the FDIC to infuse additional capital into WebBank to the extent that WebBank fails to satisfy its capital requirements.
In July 2013, the Federal Reserve Board, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the FDIC issued rules that implemented the Basel III changes to the international regulatory capital framework and revised the U.S. risk-based and leverage capital requirements for U.S. banking organizations in order to strengthen identified areas of weakness in capital rules and to address relevant provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act.
Effective January 1, 2015 for WebBank, FDIC regulations implementing the Basel III Accord modified WebBank's minimum capital requirements by defining what constitutes capital for regulatory capital purposes and adding a 4.5% Common Equity Tier 1 ratio and increased the Tier 1 capital ratio requirement from 4% to 6%. FDIC regulations also require WebBank to comply with a total capital ratio of 8% and a leverage ratio of 4%. Additionally, WebBank is expected to maintain a Capital Conservation Buffer (composed solely of common equity Tier 1 capital) equal to 2.5% above the new regulatory minimum
capital requirements. The Capital Conservation Buffer is on top of the minimum risk-weighted capital ratios and had the effect of increasing those ratios by 2.5% each. A failure of WebBank to maintain the aggregate minimum capital required by the Capital Conservation Buffer will impair its ability to make certain distributions (including dividends and stock repurchases) and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers. A failure of WebBank to maintain capital as required by the FDIC's minimum capital requirements would subject WebBank to the FDIC's prompt corrective action regime, which may further impair WebBank's ability to make payments or distributions and may require a capital restoration plan or other corrective regulatory measures.
The Company currently cannot predict the specific impact and long-term effects that Basel III and its implementation in the U.S. will have on WebBank and the banking industry more generally. Furthermore, the Dodd-Frank Act codified a longstanding policy that all companies that directly or indirectly control an FDIC-insured bank are required to serve as a source of financial strength for such institution. As a result, SPLP could be called upon by the FDIC to infuse additional capital into WebBank to the extent that WebBank fails to satisfy its capital requirements, including at times that SPLP might not otherwise be inclined to provide it and even if doing so may adversely affect SPLP's ability to meet its other obligations, which include limitations on capital contributions to WebBank specified in the Company's senior credit facility.
WebBank's lending programs depend on relationships with Marketing Partners.
WebBank offers its lending programs with Marketing Partners. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the two highest grossing contractual lending programs accounted for approximately 12% and 23%, respectively, of WebBank's total revenue. If its Marketing Partners do not provide origination services or other services to WebBank, or provide those services in a faulty manner, that may negatively impact WebBank's ongoing and future business. In addition, if the Marketing Partners or other third parties do not purchase the loans (or interests in loans) that are originated by WebBank, then WebBank may need to retain those loans (or interests in loans) and that may negatively impact its ongoing and future business. Marketing Partners are also required to indemnify WebBank for certain liabilities that may arise from the lending programs. If Marketing Partners are unable or unwilling to satisfy their indemnification obligations, then WebBank would face increased risk from liability for claims made in private litigation or regulatory enforcement actions. Marketing Partners may rely on outside sources of capital to meet their obligations. Market conditions and other factors may affect the availability of capital for Marketing Partners. The availability of capital may also affect the volume of loans that can be originated through WebBank's lending programs. In recent periods, the availability of capital has been more limited for several of WebBank's Marketing Partners, resulting in a decrease in loan volume and a negative impact on WebBank's business.
WebBank is subject to risks of litigation from its borrowers or others regarding the processing of loans for the Paycheck Protection Program and risks that the Small Business Administration may not fund some or all Paycheck Protection Program loan guaranties.
The CARES Act included a $349 billion loan program administered through the SBA referred to as the Paycheck Protect Program. The PPP has subsequently been expanded and extended under additional legislation. Under the PPP, small businesses and other entities and individuals could apply for loans from existing SBA lenders and other approved regulated lenders. WebBank participated as a lender in the PPP. Because of the short timeframe between the passing of the CARES Act and the opening of the PPP, there was some ambiguity in the laws, rules and guidance regarding the operation of the PPP along with the continually evolving nature of the SBA rules, interpretations and guidelines concerning this program, which exposes WebBank to risks relating to noncompliance with the PPP. Since the launch of the PPP, several banks have been subject to litigation regarding the process and procedures that such banks used in processing applications for the PPP. As such, WebBank may be exposed to the risk of litigation, from both borrowers and non-borrowers that approached WebBank regarding PPP loans, regarding its process and procedures used in processing applications for the PPP. WebBank may also be subject to investigations or enforcement actions by state and federal authorities, including the SBA. If any such litigation or government action is brought against WebBank and is not resolved in a manner favorable to WebBank, it may result in significant financial liability or adversely affect its reputation. In addition, litigation and government actions can be costly, regardless of outcome. Any financial liability, litigation costs or reputational damage caused by PPP-related litigation or government actions could have a material adverse impact on WebBank's business, financial condition and results of operations.
WebBank also has credit risk on PPP loans if a determination is made by the SBA that there is a deficiency in the manner in which the loan was originated, underwritten, certified by the borrower, funded, or serviced by WebBank or its third-party servicers, such as an issue with the eligibility of a borrower to receive a PPP loan, which may or may not be related to the ambiguity in the laws, rules and guidance regarding the operation of the PPP. In the event of a loss resulting from a default on a PPP loan and a determination by the SBA that there was a deficiency in the manner in which the PPP loan was originated, certified by the borrower, funded, or serviced by WebBank or its third-party services, the SBA may deny its liability under the
guaranty, reduce the amount of the guaranty, or, if it has already paid under the guaranty, seek recovery of any loss related to the deficiency from WebBank.
Economic downturns in various sectors could disrupt and materially harm our businesses.
Negative trends in the general economy, including rising interest rates and commodity prices, could cause a downturn in the markets for our products and services. A significant portion of our revenues in the Diversified Industrial segment are received from customers in transportation, oil and gas exploration and construction-related industries, which have experienced significant financial downturns in the past. These industries are cyclical, and demand for their products tends to fluctuate due to changes in national and global economic conditions, availability of credit and other factors. A worsening of customer demand in these industries would adversely affect our revenues, profitability, operating results, cash flows and could lead to further impairments. In our Energy segment, the level of oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in the U.S. is affected by the price of oil. Reduced discovery rates of new oil and natural gas reserves, or a decrease in the development rate of reserves in our market areas, weakness in oil and natural gas prices, or our customers' perceptions that oil and natural gas prices will decrease in the future, could result in a reduction in the utilization of our equipment and result in lower revenues or rates for the services of our Energy segment. Our customers' willingness to undertake these activities depends largely upon prevailing industry conditions that are influenced by many factors over which we have no control. Our Financial Services segment could be impacted by tightening of the credit markets and other general economic declines that could result in a decrease in lending and demand for consumer loans. We may also experience a slowdown if some customers experience difficulty in obtaining adequate financing due to tightness in the credit markets. Furthermore, the financial stability of our customers or suppliers may be compromised, which could result in additional bad debts for us or non-performance by suppliers. Our assets may also be impaired or subject to write-down or write-off as a result of these conditions. These adverse effects would likely be exacerbated if global economic conditions worsen, resulting in wide-ranging, adverse and prolonged effects on general business conditions, and materially and adversely affect our operations, financial results and liquidity.
Our subsidiaries do not have long-term contracts with all of their customers, and the loss of customers with which we do not have long-term contracts could materially adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations.
Our businesses are based primarily upon individual orders, sales and service agreements with customers and not long-term contracts. As such, these customers could cease buying products or using our services at any time, for any reason, and with little or no notice, and we will have no recourse in the event a customer no longer wants to purchase products from us or use our services. If a significant number of our customers reduce, or elect not to purchase products or use our services, or we have to make price concessions in order to retain certain customers, it could materially adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations. In the event of termination, our subsidiaries' contracts sometimes provide for fees for winding down the products or services, but these fees may not be sufficient for us to maintain the revenues associated with the canceled contract or to compensate for the losses incurred in finding replacement sources of revenue.
Risks Related to Our Structure
The unitholders have limited recourse to maintain actions against the General Partner, the Board of Directors, our officers and the Manager.
The Limited Partnership Agreement of SPLP, or the "Partnership Agreement," contains broad indemnification and exculpation provisions that limit the right of a unitholder to maintain an action against the General Partner, the Board of Directors, our officers and the Manager, or to recover losses or costs incurred due to action or inaction by these parties which have a negative effect on the Company.
Our Partnership Agreement contains certain provisions that may limit the voting rights of some unitholders.
Our Partnership Agreement contains specific provisions that are intended to comply with regulatory limitations on the ownership of our securities as a result of our ownership of WebBank. Under the Partnership Agreement, a person or group that acquires beneficial ownership of 10% or more of the common units without the prior approval of the Board of Directors may lose voting rights with respect to all of its common units in excess of 9.9%.
We may have conflicts of interest with the minority shareholders of our businesses and decisions may need to be made by disinterested directors, without the participation of directors or officers associated with the Manager and the
Company. These decisions may be different from the decisions we would make, and may or may not be in the best interests of our unitholders.
Because we own less than 100% of certain affiliates, and we may engage in transactions with these affiliates from time to time, the boards of directors and officers of those businesses, including directors and officers associated with our Manager and the Company, have fiduciary duties to their respective shareholders. As a result, they may make decisions that are in the best interests of their shareholders generally but which are not necessarily in the best interest of our unitholders. In dealings with us, the directors and officers of our businesses may have conflicts of interest and decisions may have to be made without their participation. Such decisions may be different from the decisions we would make and may not be in the best interests of our common and preferred unitholders, which may have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
There are certain interlocking relationships among us and certain affiliates of Warren G. Lichtenstein, our Executive Chairman, which may present potential conflicts of interest.
Warren G. Lichtenstein, our Executive Chairman and a substantial unitholder, is the Chief Executive Officer of our Manager. As of December 31, 2020, Mr. Lichtenstein directly owned approximately 1.9% of our outstanding common units. In addition, affiliates of our Manager, including Mr. Lichtenstein, beneficially own approximately 63.0% of our outstanding common units, although Mr. Lichtenstein disclaims beneficial ownership of any common units not directly held by him. We have entered into transactions and/or agreements with these entities. There can be no assurance that such entities will not have interests in conflict with our own, or that Mr. Lichtenstein will not have interests different than those of our unitholders.
Certain members of our management team may be involved in other business activities that may involve conflicts of interest, possibly diverting their attention from the Company's operations.
Certain individual members of our management team, including Warren G. Lichtenstein, our Executive Chairman, and Jack L. Howard, our President, may from time to time be involved in the management of other businesses, including those owned or controlled by our Manager and its affiliates. Accordingly, these individuals may focus a portion of their time and attention on managing these other businesses. Conflicts may arise in the future between our interests and the interests of the other entities and business activities in which such individuals are involved.
Risks Related to Our Manager
We depend on Warren G. Lichtenstein, the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Manager, and Jack L. Howard, the President of the Manager, in running our businesses. The loss of their services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results and financial condition.
Our success depends on the efforts, skills, reputation and business contacts of Warren G. Lichtenstein, the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Manager and Jack L. Howard, the President of the Manager. While the key members of the Manager have worked for the Manager and its affiliates for many years, our Manager does not have any employment agreements with any of the key members of its management team, and their continued service is not guaranteed. The loss of the services of Mr. Lichtenstein or Mr. Howard could have a material adverse effect on our asset values, revenues, net income and cash flows and could harm our ability to maintain or grow our existing operations or pursue additional opportunities in the future.
We cannot determine the amount of the Management Fee that will be paid or Class C partnership units that will be issued over time with any certainty.
The Manager is entitled to receive a fee ("Management Fee") at an annual rate of 1.5% of total partners' capital. Our total partners' capital will be impacted by the performance of our businesses and other businesses we may acquire in the future, as well as the issuance of additional common or preferred units. Changes in our total partners' capital and in the resulting Management Fee could be significant, resulting in a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, if our performance declines, assuming our total partners' capital remains the same, the Management Fee will increase as a percentage of our income. In addition, SPH SPV-I LLC, an affiliate of the Manager, holds partnership profits interests in the form of incentive units which entitle the holder generally to share in 15% of the increase in the equity value of the Company, as calculated for the twenty trading days prior to each year end. The incentive units' share of such appreciation is reflected by classifying a portion of the incentive units as Class C units of the Company. Any issuance of such Class C units will result in dilution to existing limited partners' holdings in the Company.
Our Manager's liability is limited under the Management Agreement, and we have agreed to indemnify our Manager against certain liabilities. Such indemnification may incentivize our Manager to take unnecessary risks with respect to actions for which it will be indemnified.
Under the Management Agreement, our Manager, its members, officers, employees, affiliates, agents and legal representatives are not liable for, and we have agreed to indemnify such persons from, any loss or expense, including without limitations, any judgment, settlement, reasonable attorneys' fees and other costs and expenses incurred in connection with the defense of any actual or threatened proceeding, other than losses resulting from willful misconduct or gross negligence in the performance of such indemnified person's obligations and duties. Such indemnification may incentivize our Manager to take unnecessary risks with respect to actions for which it will be indemnified.
Risks Related to our Common and Preferred Units
We may issue additional common or preferred units, or other series of units, in the future without the consent of unitholders and at a discount to the market price of such units. In particular, sales of significant amounts of the common or preferred units may cause the respective prices of the units to decline.
Under the terms of the Partnership Agreement, additional common or preferred units, or additional series of units, may be issued without the consent of unitholders at a discount to the market price. In addition, other classes of securities may be issued with rights that are senior to or which otherwise have preferential rights to the rights of the common and preferred units. Sales of significant amounts of the common or preferred units in the public market or the perception that such sales of significant amounts may occur could adversely affect their respective market prices. Moreover, the perceived risk of any potential dilution could cause common or preferred unitholders to attempt to sell their units and investors to "short" the common or preferred units, a practice in which an investor sells units that he or she does not own at prevailing market prices, hoping to purchase units later at a lower price to cover the sale. Any event that would cause the number of common or preferred units being offered for sale to increase would likely cause the respective units' market price to further decline. These sales might also make it more difficult for us to sell additional common or preferred units in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate.
Transfer restrictions contained in the Company's Partnership Agreement and other factors could hinder the development of an active market for our common or preferred units.
There can be no assurance as to the volume of our common or preferred units or the degree of price volatility for our common and preferred units traded on the New York Stock Exchange. There are transfer restrictions contained in the Company's Partnership Agreement to help protect net operating tax loss carryforwards of certain of the Company's corporate subsidiaries and other portfolio companies. Unless renewed, the transfer restrictions will expire on February 7, 2023, and they could hinder development of an active market for our common and preferred units.
Risks Related to Taxation
All statutory references in this section are to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the "Code."
Our common unitholders may be subject to U.S. federal, state and other income tax on their share of our taxable income, regardless of whether they receive any cash distributions from us.
The Company operates, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as a partnership and not a publicly traded partnership taxable as a corporation. Our common unitholders will be subject to U.S. federal, state, local and possibly, in some cases, foreign income tax on their allocable share of our taxable income, whether or not they receive cash distributions from us. Any future determination to declare dividends on the Company's common units will remain at the discretion of the Board of Directors of the General Partner and is separately determined regardless of the allocation of taxable income. Accordingly, our common unitholders may be required to make tax payments in connection with their ownership of common units that significantly exceed their cash distributions in any given year.
The Centralized Partnership Audit Regime may subject unitholders to IRS initiated tax adjustments for prior years on their personal tax returns.
For tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2018, the Company is subject to partnership audit rules enacted as part of the Centralized Partnership Audit Regime. Under the Centralized Partnership Audit Regime, any IRS audit of the Company would be conducted at the Company level, and if the IRS determines an adjustment, the default rule is that the Company would
pay an "imputed underpayment" including interest and penalties, if applicable. The Company may instead elect to make a "push-out" election, in which case the partners for the year that is under audit would be required to take into account the adjustments on their own personal income tax returns.
U.S. government tax reform could have a negative impact on the results of future operations.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("Act") was enacted. The Act made substantial changes to the Code, some of which could have an adverse effect on our business. Among other things, the Act (i) reduces the U.S. corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% beginning in 2018, (ii) limits annual deductions for interest net expense to no more than 30% of our "adjusted taxable income," plus 100% of our business interest income for the year and (iii) permits a taxpayer to offset only 80% (rather than 100%) of its taxable income with any U.S. net operating losses ("NOLs") generated for taxable years beginning after 2017. The U.S. Department of the Treasury has broad authority to issue regulations and interpretative guidance that may significantly impact how we will apply the law and impact our results of operations in the period issued. While the U.S. Department of the Treasury has issued some proposed regulations since the enactment of the Act, additional guidance is likely forthcoming. The prospects of supplemental legislation or regulatory processes to address uncertainties that arise because of the Act, or evolving technical interpretations of the tax law, may cause our consolidated financial statements to be impacted, whether negatively or positively, in the future. We intend to continue analyzing the effects of the Act as subsequent guidance continues to emerge.
Our tax treatment is not assured. If we are taxed as a corporation, it could adversely impact our results of operations.
A partnership is not a taxable entity, and distributions by a partnership to a partner are generally not taxable to the partnership or the partner unless the amount of cash distributed to such partner exceeds the partner's adjusted basis in its partnership interest. Section 7704 provides that generally publicly traded partnerships are taxed as corporations. However, an exception, referred to as the "Qualifying Income Exception," exists with respect to publicly traded partnerships of which 90 percent or more of the gross income for every taxable year consists of "qualifying income" as defined in the Code. We expect that we will meet the Qualifying Income Exception.
If the Qualifying Income Exception is not available to us, then we will be treated as a corporation instead of a partnership. In that event, the deemed incorporation of SPLP should be tax-free. If we were taxed as a corporation, (i) our net income would be taxed at corporate income tax rates, thereby substantially reducing our profitability, (ii) our common unitholders would not be allowed to deduct their share of losses of SPLP and (iii) distributions to our common unitholders, other than liquidating distributions, would constitute dividends to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, and would be taxable as such.
Our structure involves complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available.
The U.S. federal income tax treatment of our common unitholders depends in some instances on interpretations of complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. Our Partnership Agreement permits our General Partner to modify it from time to time, including the allocation of items of income, gain, loss and deduction (including unrealized gain and unrealized loss to the extent allowable under U.S. federal income tax law), without the consent of our unitholders, to address certain changes in U.S. federal income tax regulations, legislation or interpretation or to preserve the uniformity of our common units. In some circumstances, such revisions could have a material adverse impact on some or all common unitholders. In addition, we formed a subsidiary partnership, to which we contributed certain of our assets ("Subsidiary Partnership"). To preserve the uniformity of common units, we (but not the Subsidiary Partnership) made an election permitted under Section 754, and we will adopt the remedial allocation method under Section 704(c) with respect to items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to assets contributed to us (which we will contribute to the Subsidiary Partnership), to account for any difference between the tax basis and fair market value of such assets at the time of contribution, or attributable to the "book-up" or "book-down" of our assets prior to their contribution to the Subsidiary Partnership, or while they were held by the Subsidiary Partnership, to account for the difference between the tax basis and fair market value of such assets at the time of a mark-to-market event. We intend generally to make allocations under Section 704(c) to our common unitholders in accordance with their respective percentage interests. However, built-in gain or built-in loss in existence and allocable to the assets we contributed to the Subsidiary Partnership, when recognized, will be allocated to our common unitholders as of the contribution date. We intend to prepare our tax returns on the basis that buyers of common units from such unitholders will not inherit such unitholders' built-in gains or built-in losses as of that date as a result of the election under
Section 754. However, it is not clear whether this position will be upheld if challenged by the IRS. While we believe it represents the right result, there is no law directly on point.
Tax-exempt entities face unique tax issues from owning common units that may result in adverse tax consequences to them.
A holder of common units that is a tax-exempt organization may be subject to U.S. federal income taxation to the extent that its allocable share of our income consists of unrelated business taxable income ("UBTI"). A tax-exempt partner of a partnership may be treated as earning UBTI if the partnership regularly engages in a trade or business that is unrelated to the exempt function of the tax-exempt partner, if the partnership derives income from debt-financed property (as we may borrow money) or if the tax-exempt organization's partnership interest itself is debt-financed.
Our subsidiaries may not be able to fully utilize their tax benefits, which could result in increased cash payments for taxes in future periods.
NOLs may be carried forward to offset federal and state taxable income in future years and reduce the amount of cash paid for income taxes otherwise payable on such taxable income, subject to certain limits and adjustments. If fully utilized, our subsidiaries' NOLs and other carryforwards could provide them with significant tax savings in future periods. Their ability to utilize these tax benefits in future years will depend upon their ability to generate sufficient taxable income and to comply with the rules relating to the preservation and use of NOLs, as well as potential future changes in tax laws. The potential benefit of the NOLs and other carryforwards may be limited or permanently lost as a result of the following:
•the inability to generate sufficient taxable income in future years to use such benefits before they expire as NOLs generated for taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2017 have a limited carryforward period;
•a change in control of our subsidiaries that would trigger limitations on the amount of taxable income in future years that may be offset by NOLs and other carryforwards that existed prior to the change in control; and
•examinations and audits by the IRS and other taxing authorities could reduce the amount of NOLs and other credit carryforwards that are available for future years.
Certain of our subsidiaries maintain valuation allowances against their NOLs and other carryforwards due to uncertainty regarding their ability to generate sufficient taxable income in future periods. Their inability to utilize the NOLs and other carryforwards could result in increased cash payments for taxes in future periods.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Diversified Industrial Segment
As of December 31, 2020, the Diversified Industrial segment had 26 active operating plants in the U.S, China, U.K., Germany, France and Mexico, including warehouse, office, sales, service and laboratory space. The Diversified Industrial segment also owns or leases sales, service, office and warehouse facilities at 19 other locations in the U.S., U.K., Canada, Germany, France, Italy, Poland, Singapore and China, and owns or leases 3 non-operating locations. Manufacturing facilities are located in: Camden, Delaware; Brewster, New York; Bristol, Pennsylvania; Addison, Illinois; Evansville, Indiana; Agawam, Massachusetts; Rockford, Minnesota; Arden and Statesville, North Carolina; Anderson, South Carolina; Kenosha, Cudahy and Muskego, Wisconsin; Warwick, Rhode Island; Matamoros, Mexicali and Tecate, Mexico; Welham Green and Gwent, U.K.; Freiburg, Germany; Riberac, France; and Xianghe and Suzhou, China. The following plants are leased: Kenosha, Muskego, Arden, Rockford, one of two Matamoros plants, Mexicali, Tecate, Freiburg, Xianghe and Suzhou plants. The other plants are owned. The Diversified Industrial segment considers its manufacturing plants and service facilities to be well maintained and efficiently equipped, and therefore suitable for the work being done. The productive capacity and extent of utilization of its facilities is dependent in some cases on general business conditions and in other cases on the seasonality of the utilization of its products. Capacity can be expanded at some locations.
As of December 31, 2020, the Energy business owns 3 buildings in Williston, North Dakota, including one that serves as operations hub in the Bakken basin along with separate buildings with office and shop space, 3 buildings in Farmington, New Mexico which serve as office and shop space, and a non-operating location in Arnegard, North Dakota. The Energy business also owns office and shop space in Texas that serves as its operations hub in the Permian basin. Steel Energy leases office space headquartered in Johnstown, Colorado, and the Energy business leases shop space and office space in other locations under month-to-month arrangements on an as-needed basis, and owns and leases housing for temporary living arrangements for certain of its employees.
Steel Sports has a lease for approximately 28 acres of land in Yaphank, New York for its baseball services operation. Steel Sports also has a lease for office space in Bridgewater, New Jersey which serves as the headquarters for its youth soccer operation, and also has leases in various states for small administrative offices to support the soccer operation.
Financial Services Segment
As of December 31, 2020, WebBank leases 29,751 square feet of office space headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah. WebBank also leases 3,617 square feet of office space in Summit, New Jersey and 3,031 square feet of office space in Denver, Colorado. WebBank believes that these facilities are adequate for its current needs and that suitable additional space will be available as required.
Corporate and Other
As of December 31, 2020, Steel Services leases office space headquartered in New York, New York.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The information set forth under Note 20 - "Commitments and Contingencies" to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Report, is incorporated herein by reference. For an additional discussion of certain risks associated with legal proceedings, see also Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors of this Report.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
As of December 31, 2020, we had 22,920,804 common units issued and outstanding. Our common units, no par value, are quoted on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "SPLP."
As of December 31, 2020, there were approximately 110 unitholders of record.
Equity Performance Graph
Consistent with the rules applicable to "Smaller Reporting Companies," we have omitted information required by this item.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The Board of Directors has approved the repurchase of up to an aggregate of 5,500,000 of the Company's common units ("Repurchase Program"), which is inclusive of 2,500,000 common units approved in December 2020. The Repurchase Program supersedes and cancels, to the extent any amounts remain available, all previously approved repurchase programs. Any purchases made under the Repurchase Program will be made from time to time on the open market at prevailing market prices or in negotiated transactions off the market, in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In connection with the Repurchase Program, the Company may enter into a stock purchase plan. The Repurchase Program has no termination date. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company purchased 2,268,771 common units for an aggregate purchase price of $20,464. Since inception of the Repurchase Program, the Company has purchased 4,357,948 common units for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $54,345. As of December 31, 2020, there remained 1,142,052 units that may yet be purchased under the Repurchase Program.
The following table provides information about our repurchases of common units during the quarter ended December 31, 2020. During that period, we did not act in concert with any affiliate or any other person to acquire any of our common stock and, accordingly, we do not believe that purchases by any such affiliate or other person (if any) are reportable in the following table.
|Period||Total number of units purchased||Average price paid per unit||Total number of units purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs||Maximum number (or approximate dollar value) of units that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs|
|October 1-31, 2020||— ||$||— ||— ||910,823|
|November 1-30, 2020||— ||— ||— ||910,823|
|December 1-31, 2020||2,268,771||9.02||2,268,771 ||1,142,052|
|Total||2,268,771||$||9.02 ||2,268,771 ||1,142,052|
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Consistent with the rules applicable to "Smaller Reporting Companies," we have omitted information required by Item 6.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto that are available elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following is a discussion and analysis of SPLP's consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31,
2020 and 2019. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, particularly in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors. All monetary amounts used in this discussion are in thousands, except common and preferred units, per common and preferred unit, and per share data..
Restatement for Correction of Immaterial Errors in Previously Issued Consolidated Financial Statements
In connection with the preparation of the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company identified errors in its previously filed annual consolidated financial statements and unaudited quarterly consolidated financial statements. The errors were not material to any individual prior quarterly or annual period. The prior period errors are related primarily to a division of the Company's Electrical Products business within the Diversified Industrial segment.
The Company assessed the materiality of the errors in its historical annual consolidated financial statements in accordance with SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin ("SAB") Topic 1.M, Materiality, codified in Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 250, Accounting Changes and Error Corrections, and concluded that the errors were not material to the previously filed annual consolidated financial statements or corresponding unaudited interim periods but would be material in the aggregate if corrected solely in its consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020. In accordance with ASC 250 (SAB Topic 1.N, Considering the Effects of Prior Year Misstatements when Quantifying Misstatements in Current Year Financial Statements), the Company has corrected for these errors by revising previously filed 2019 annual consolidated financial statements in connection with the filing of this 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. The revised annual consolidated financial statements also include adjustments to correct certain other immaterial errors, including errors that had previously been adjusted for as out of period corrections in the period identified. Refer to Note 25 - "Restatement of Previously Issued Consolidated Financial Statements" for reconciliations between as reported and as restated annual amounts. Accordingly, this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations reflects the impact of those restatements.
SPLP operates through the following segments: Diversified Industrial, Energy and Financial Services, which are managed separately and offer different products and services. Corporate and Other consists of several consolidated subsidiaries, including Steel Services, equity method and other investments, and cash and cash equivalents. Its income or loss includes certain unallocated general corporate expenses. For a more complete description of the Company's segments, see Part I, Item 1, "Business - Products and Product Mix" found elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Following is a summary of significant developments that have impacted the Company in 2020 and early 2021. For additional discussion of these matters, please see the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Report.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization categorized COVID-19 as a pandemic, and the President of the U.S. declared the COVID-19 outbreak a national emergency. The spread of the outbreak has caused significant disruptions in the U.S. and global economies, and economists expect the impact will be significant during the remainder of 2021 and potentially beyond. The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company continues to evaluate the global risks and the slowdown in business activity related to COVID-19, including the potential impacts on its employees, customers, suppliers and financial results. As the situation surrounding COVID-19 continues to remain fluid, it is expected to continue having a negative impact to the Company; however, it is difficult to predict the duration of the pandemic and its continued impact on the Company's business, operations, financial condition and cash flows. There is no certainty that federal, state or local regulations regarding safety measures to address the spread of COVID-19 will not adversely impact the Company's operations. As of the filing of this Form 10-K, all of the Company's facilities were open and able to operate at normal capacities. Additionally, as the COVID-19 pandemic progressed, the Company initiated cost reduction actions, including the reduction and waiver of management and board fees, hiring freezes, employee furloughs, staffing and force reductions, salary reductions, bonus payment deferrals and 401(k) match suspension to help mitigate the financial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company also froze all discretionary spend, implemented strict approvals for capital expenditures and aggressively managed working capital. Many of those prior actions, such as reduction and waiver of management and board fees, employee furloughs, salary reductions and 401(k) match suspensions have ceased and certain of the salary reductions and
management and board payment deferrals have been repaid. The Company continues to evaluate the overall impact of COVID-19 and may take further or continued actions as circumstances warrant.
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected our consolidated financial results for the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company anticipates COVID-19 may continue to have an adverse impact on our business through 2021 and potentially beyond. While the Company developed and implemented, and continues to develop and implement, health and safety protocols, business continuity plans and crisis management protocols in an effort to try to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19 to its employees and business, the severity of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company's business in 2021 and beyond will depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the duration and severity of the pandemic, governmental actions that have been taken, or may be taken in the future, in response to the pandemic, and the extent and severity of the impact on the Company's customers and suppliers, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. The Company's future results of operations and liquidity could be adversely impacted by delays in payments of outstanding receivable amounts beyond normal payment terms, supply chain disruptions and uncertain demand, and the impact of any initiatives or programs that the Company may undertake to address financial and operations challenges faced by its customers. As of the date of filing of this Form 10-K, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact the Company's financial condition, liquidity or results of operations is uncertain.
Following is a summary of the recent transactions involving the Company's investments:
•Steel Connect – On November 19, 2020, the Board of Directors of the Company sent a letter to Steel Connect setting forth a non-binding expression of interest to acquire all of the outstanding shares of Steel Connect common stock, par value $0.01 per share, not already owned by the Company and its subsidiaries. The letter is only a proposal, which does not constitute an offer or proposal capable of acceptance and may be withdrawn at any time and in any manner. There can be no assurance that any definitive offer will be made, that any agreement will be executed or that the transaction proposed in the letter or any other transaction will be approved or completed. The Company is not obligated to disclose any further developments or updates on the progress of the proposed transaction until either the Company enters into a definitive agreement or determines no such transaction will be approved.
•Aerojet – As of December 31, 2020, the Company owned 5.1% of Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc. ("Aerojet") common stock with a fair value of $208,758. On December 20, 2020, Aerojet entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger with Lockheed Martin Corporation ("Lockheed"), in which Aerojet would be acquired by Lockheed. Pursuant to terms of the merger, each share of common stock outstanding as of immediately prior to the effective time of the merger will be automatically converted into the right to receive cash in an amount equal to $56.00 per share, without interest, less, to the extent paid or payable as outlined below, the amount per share of the Pre-Closing Dividend (defined below). On December 19, 2020, Aerojet's Board of Directors declared a one-time cash dividend of $5.00 per share (the "Pre-Closing Dividend") which was paid on March 24, 2021 to the holders of Aerojet's shares as of the close of business on March 10, 2021. The $56.00 per share price under the merger agreement is expected to be reduced to $51.00 after the pre-closing payment of the Pre-Closing Dividend to the company's stockholders.
•Aviat – In January and February of 2021, the Company sold its remaining ownership interest in Aviat Network, Inc. ("Aviat") for total proceeds of approximately $24,100.
Acquisitions, Divestitures and Discontinued Operations
•Edge Divestiture – On January 31, 2021, the Company completed the sale of its Edge business for a sales price of $16,000, subject to a working capital adjustment. Edge provided roofing edge metal products and was part of the Company's OMG, Inc. ("OMG") business in the Diversified Industrial segment.
•API Discontinued Operations – On January 31, 2020, the Company announced that API and certain of its affiliates commenced administration proceedings in the U.K. The purpose of the administration proceedings is to facilitate an orderly sale or wind-down of its U.K. operations. In the U.S., API Americas Inc. voluntarily filed for Chapter 11 proceedings in Bankruptcy Court on February 2, 2020 in order to facilitate the sale or liquidation of its assets. The API Americas Inc. Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings were closed by the Bankruptcy Court on December 21, 2020. The Company deconsolidated the API entities on the previously noted filing dates as it no longer holds a controlling financial interest as of those dates.
Common Unit Repurchase Program
•In December 2020, the Board of Directors of the Company approved the repurchase of up to an additional 2,500,000 of the Company's common units under the Repurchase Program. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company purchased 2,268,771 units for an aggregate price of $20,464 under the Repurchase Program. Since inception of the Repurchase Program, the Company has purchased 4,357,948 common units for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $54,345 and there remain 1,142,052 units that may yet be purchased under the Repurchase Program.
•On February 6, 2020 ("Redemption Date"), the Company redeemed 1,600,000 units of its preferred units at a price equal to $25 per unit, plus an amount of $0.22 per unit, equal to any accumulated and unpaid distributions up to, but excluding, the Redemption Date, for a total payment of approximately $40,400.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We utilize certain non-GAAP financial measurements as defined by the SEC, which include "Adjusted EBITDA." The Company defines Adjusted EBITDA as net income or loss from continuing operations before the effects of income or loss from investments in associated companies and other investments held at fair value, interest expense, taxes, depreciation and amortization, non-cash pension expense or income, and realized and unrealized gains or losses on investments, and excludes certain non-recurring and non-cash items. The Company is presenting this non-GAAP financial measurement because it believes that this measure provides useful information to investors about the Company's business and its financial condition. The Company believes this measure is useful to investors because it is a measure used by the Company's Board of Directors and management to evaluate its ongoing business, including in internal management reporting, budgeting and forecasting processes, in comparing operating results across the business, as an internal profitability measure, as a component in evaluating the ability and the desirability of making capital expenditures and significant acquisitions, and as an element in determining executive compensation.
However, this measure is not a measure of financial performance under U.S. GAAP, and the items excluded from this measure are significant components in understanding and assessing financial performance. Therefore, this non-GAAP financial measurement should not be considered a substitute for net income or loss. Because Adjusted EBITDA is calculated before recurring cash charges, including realized losses on investments, interest expense, and taxes, and is not adjusted for capital expenditures or other recurring cash requirements of the business, it should not be considered as a measure of discretionary cash available to invest in the growth of the business. There are a number of material limitations to the use of Adjusted EBITDA as an analytical tool, including the following:
•Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the Company's tax provision or the cash requirements to pay its taxes;
•Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect income or loss from the Company's investments in associated companies and other investments held at fair value;
•Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the Company's interest expense;
•Although depreciation and amortization are non-cash expenses in the period recorded, the assets being depreciated and amortized may have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the cash requirements for such replacement;
•Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the Company's net realized and unrealized gains and losses on its investments;
•Adjusted EBITDA does not include non-cash charges for pension expense and equity-based compensation;
•Adjusted EBITDA does not include amounts related to noncontrolling interests in consolidated entities;
•Adjusted EBITDA does not include certain other non-recurring and non-cash items; and
•Adjusted EBITDA does not include the Company's discontinued operations.
The following table reconciles net income from continuing operations to Adjusted EBITDA:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Adjusted EBITDA Reconciliation|
|Net income from continuing operations||$||83,477 ||$||79,471 |
|Income tax provision||38,136 ||14,563 |
|Income from continuing operations before income taxes||121,613 ||94,034 |
|Loss of associated companies, net of taxes||3,786 ||8,043 |
|Realized and unrealized gains on securities, net||(25,643)||(47,315)|
|Interest expense||29,514 ||38,835 |
|Depreciation||44,583 ||44,619 |
|Amortization||20,750 ||21,561 |
|Non-cash goodwill impairment charges||1,100 ||15,924 |
|Non-cash asset impairment charges||606 ||849 |
|Non-cash pension expense||3,632 ||8,290 |
|Non-cash equity-based compensation||887 ||779 |
|Other items, net||12,911 ||9,730 |
|Adjusted EBITDA||$||213,739 ||$||195,349 |
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Segment Adjusted EBITDA|
|Diversified Industrial||$||140,634 ||$||117,439 |
|Energy||13,841 ||13,440 |
|Financial Services||60,523 ||66,199 |
|Corporate and Other||(1,259)||(1,729)|
|Total||$||213,739 ||$||195,349 |
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
|Year Ended December 31, |
|Revenue||$||1,310,636 ||$||1,455,048 |
|Cost of goods sold||859,863 ||952,071 |
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||290,784 ||334,566 |
|Goodwill impairment charges||1,100 ||15,924 |
|Asset impairment charges||606 ||849 |
|Interest expense||29,514 ||38,835 |
|Realized and unrealized gains on securities, net||(25,643)||(47,315)|
|All other expenses, net||29,013 ||58,041 |
|Total costs and expenses||1,185,237 ||1,352,971 |
|Income before income taxes and equity method investments||125,399 ||102,077 |
|Income tax provision||38,136 ||14,563 |
|Loss of associated companies, net of taxes||3,786 ||8,043 |
|Net income from continuing operations||83,477 ||79,471 |
|Loss from discontinued operations, net of taxes||(10,199)||(81,165)|
|Net income (loss)||73,278 ||(1,694)|
|Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests in consolidated entities (continuing operations)||(603)||97 |
|Net income (loss) attributable to common unitholders||$||72,675 ||$||(1,597)|
Revenue in 2020 decreased $144,412, or 9.9%, as compared to 2019. Excluding the effect of an increase in average silver prices in the Diversified Industrial segment of 1.2%, revenue decreased by 11.1%. The net revenue decrease of 11.1% was due to lower sales volume across all the reportable segments, primarily due to the impact of COVID-19.
Cost of Goods Sold
Cost of goods sold in 2020 decreased $92,208, or 9.7%, as compared to 2019, due to decreases in the Diversified Industrial and Energy segments. The decrease in cost of goods sold was primarily due to: (1) lower sales volume in both the Diversified Industrial and Energy segments, (2) the Company's cost reduction efforts to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 and (3) a $5,049 reduction in expense due to a favorable settlement of litigation involving the OMG business in the Diversified Industrial segment (refer to Note 20).
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses ("SG&A") in 2020 decreased $43,782, or 13.1%, as compared to 2019, primarily due to lower sales volume and cost reduction initiatives in the Diversified Industrial and Energy segments. These decreases were partially offset by: (1) a $14,000 environmental reserve charge recorded in 2020 in the Diversified Industrial segment related to a legacy, non-operating site and (2) higher SG&A in the Financial Services segment driven by increased credit performance fees associated with the larger loan balances. There was also a $12,500 expense associated with a legal settlement in Corporate and Other in 2019.
Goodwill Impairment Charges
As a result of declines in customer demand and the performance of the performance materials business during 2020, the Company recorded a $1,100 charge in the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020.
The Company fully impaired the Packaging reporting unit's goodwill during 2019 and recorded aggregate pre-tax Goodwill impairment charges of $41,853 ($15,924 classified in continuing operations for Dunmore and $25,929 classified in discontinued operations for API) in the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Asset Impairment Charges
As a result of COVID-19 related declines in our youth sports business within the Energy segment, intangible assets of $606, primarily customer relationships, were fully impaired in 2020. The impairment charges in 2019 of $849 were primarily related to unused software in the Diversified Industrial segment's Kasco business.
Interest expense for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $29,514 and $38,835, respectively. The lower interest expense in 2020 was primarily due to lower interest rates.
Realized and Unrealized Gains on Securities, Net
Realized and unrealized gains on securities, net for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $25,643 and $47,315, respectively. The changes in realized and unrealized gains on securities, net over the respective periods are primarily due to mark-to-market adjustments on the Company's portfolio of securities, which are required to be recorded in earnings under U.S. GAAP.
All Other Expenses, Net
All other expenses, net were lower by $29,028 in 2020, as compared to 2019. The decrease was primarily due to lower provision for loan losses and lower finance interest expense, as compared to 2019.
As a limited partnership, we are generally not responsible for federal and state income taxes, and our profits and losses are passed directly to our limited partners for inclusion in their respective income tax returns. The Company's tax provision represents the income tax expense or benefit of its consolidated corporate subsidiaries. For the year ended December 31, 2020, a tax provision of $38,136 was recorded, as compared to $14,563 in 2019. Significant losses incurred by a corporate subsidiary together with losses incurred by the limited partnership, a flow-through entity, for both of which no tax benefits have been recorded, resulted in an effective tax rate of 30.4% based on the consolidated income before income taxes and equity method investments of $125,399 in 2020. The lower 2019 effective tax rate reflects benefits for the removal of the valuation allowance on a capital loss carryforward and deductions related to the write-off of investments in certain subsidiaries.
Loss of Associated Companies, Net of Taxes
The Company incurred losses from associated companies, net of taxes, of $3,786 in 2020, as compared to losses, net of taxes of $8,043 in 2019. For the details of each of these investments and the related mark-to-market adjustments in both periods, see Note 11 - "Investments" to the SPLP consolidated financial statements found elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Loss from Discontinued Operations
The Company recorded net loss from discontinued operations, net of taxes, of $10,199 and $81,165 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, related to the Company's API entities which were part of the Diversified Industrial segment. The Company deconsolidated API on January 31, 2020 as it no longer held a controlling financial interest as of that date (see to Note 6 - "Discontinued Operations").
Adjusted EBITDA was $213,739 in 2020, as compared to $195,349 in 2019. Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of sales was 16.3% in 2020, as compared to 13.4% in 2019. Higher Adjusted EBITDA in 2020 was primarily driven by cost reduction efforts to mitigate the impact of COVID-19, partially offset by the unfavorable impact from lower revenue, as compared to 2019.
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Diversified Industrial||$||1,058,745 ||$||1,119,642 |
|Energy||107,831 ||163,972 |
|Financial Services||144,060 ||171,434 |
|Total||$||1,310,636 ||$||1,455,048 |
|Segment income (loss) before interest expense and income taxes:|
|Diversified Industrial||$||70,849 ||$||41,744 |
|Financial Services||59,799 ||69,385 |
|Corporate and Other||22,366 ||25,586 |
|Income before interest expense and income taxes||151,127 ||132,869 |
|Interest expense||29,514 ||38,835 |
|Income tax provision||38,136 ||14,563 |
|Net income from continuing operations||$||83,477 ||$||79,471 |
|Segment depreciation and amortization:|
|Diversified Industrial||$||49,451 ||$||48,055 |
|Energy||15,006 ||17,548 |
|Financial Services||717 ||423 |
|Corporate and Other||159 ||154 |
Total depreciation and amortization
|$||65,333 ||$||66,180 |
|Loss of associated companies, net of taxes:|
|Corporate and Other||$||3,786 ||$||8,043 |
|Total||$||3,786 ||$||8,043 |
Net sales in 2020 decreased by $60,897, or 5.4%, as compared to 2019. The change in net sales reflects an increase of $17,142 as a result of higher average silver prices. Excluding the favorable impact from higher average silver prices, net sales decreased by approximately $78,039, primarily due to lower sales volume from the performance materials and electrical products businesses, partially offset by higher sales volume from the building materials business.
Segment operating income in 2020 increased by $29,105, or 69.7%, as compared to 2019. The increase in operating income was primarily due to: (1) the absence of a $15,924 non-cash goodwill impairment charge associated with the packaging business in 2019 and (2) lower SG&A driven by cost reduction actions. These increases were partially offset by lower gross profit as a result of declines in sales volume.
Segment Adjusted EBITDA in 2020 increased by $23,195, or 19.8%, as compared to 2019. The increase in Adjusted EBITDA was primarily due to lower SG&A driven by cost reduction actions, partially offset by lower gross profit as a result of declines in sales volume.
In 2020, net revenue decreased $56,141, or 34.2%, as compared to 2019. The decrease in net revenue was primarily due lower oil prices and lower rig hours, as compared to 2019, as a result of the overall downturn experienced in the oil services industry in 2020.
Segment operating loss in 2020 decreased $1,959, or 50.9%, as compared to 2019, primarily due to lower SG&A driven by cost reduction actions initiated during 2020 as a result of the lower sales volume, partially offset by the impact of the lower sales volume.
Segment Adjusted EBITDA in 2020 increased by $401, or 3.0%, as compared to 2019. The increase was primarily due to lower SG&A driven by cost reduction actions initiated during 2020 as a result of the lower sales volume, partially offset by the impact of lower sales volume.
Revenue in 2020 decreased $27,374, or 16.0%, as compared to 2019. The decrease was primarily due to decreases in interest income and fees due to lower origination volume, as compared to 2019.
Segment operating income in 2020 decreased $9,586, or 13.8%, as compared to 2019. The lower operating income was primarily due to lower revenue and higher SG&A driven by increased credit performance fees associated with the larger loan balances, partially offset by lower personnel expenses driven by cost reduction actions due to the economic impact of COVID-19, lower finance interest expense of $4,546 and lower provision for loan losses of $21,427 in 2020. The lower finance interest expense was due to a decrease in interest rates and lower deposit balances. WebBank's allowance for loan losses has decreased in 2020, primarily driven by lower loan balances, partially offset by the impact of COVID-19.
Segment Adjusted EBITDA in 2020 decreased by $5,676, or 8.6%, as compared to 2019. The lower Adjusted EBITDA was primarily due to lower revenue and higher SG&A driven by increased credit performance fees associated with the larger loan balances, partially offset by lower personnel expenses driven by cost reduction actions due to the economic impact of COVID-19, lower finance interest expense and lower provision for loan losses in 2020.
Net Interest Income, Margin and Interest Rate Spreads
Net interest income is the difference between interest earned on interest-earning assets and interest incurred on interest-bearing liabilities. By its nature, net interest income is especially vulnerable to changes in the mix and amounts of interest- earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. In addition, changes in the interest rates and yields associated with these assets and liabilities can significantly impact net interest income. The following table summarizes the average balances, the amount of interest earned or incurred and the applicable yields for interest-earning assets and the costs of interest-bearing liabilities that generate net interest income. For purposes of calculating the yields in these schedules, the average loan balances also include the principal amounts of nonaccrual and restructured loans. However, interest received on nonaccrual loans is included in income only to the extent that cash payments have been received and not applied to principal reductions. In addition, interest on restructured loans is generally accrued at reduced rates.
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Loans receivable||$||576,897 ||$||81,431 ||14.1 ||%||$||637,226 ||$||106,489 ||16.7 ||%|
|PPP loans||1,353,595 ||14,941 ||1.1 ||%||— ||— ||— ||%|
|Held-to-maturity securities||20,188 ||635 ||3.2 ||%||50,024 ||2,031 ||4.1 ||%|
|Available-for-sale investments||2,253 ||46 ||2.0 ||%||2,925 ||56 ||1.9 ||%|
|Federal funds sold||25,757 ||41 ||0.2 ||%||13,222 ||274 ||2.1 ||%|
|Interest-bearing deposits||137,462 ||429 ||0.3 ||%||162,252 ||3,204 ||2.0 ||%|
|Total interest-earning assets||2,116,152 ||97,523 ||4.6 ||%||865,649 ||112,054 ||12.9 ||%|
|Non interest-earning assets||9,191 ||19,549 |
|Total assets||$||2,125,343 ||$||885,198 |
|Savings accounts||$||215,987 ||1,474 ||0.7 ||%||$||169,651 ||2,902 ||1.7 ||%|
|Time deposits||328,642 ||5,491 ||1.7 ||%||533,146 ||13,380 ||2.5 ||%|
|Other borrowings||$||1,358,506 ||4,768 ||0.4 ||%||$||— ||— ||— ||%|
|Total interest-bearing liabilities||1,903,135 ||11,733 ||0.6 ||%||702,797 ||16,282 ||2.3 ||%|
|Other non interest-bearing liabilities||32,004 ||23,913 |
|Total liabilities||1,935,139 ||726,710 |
|Shareholder's equity||190,204 ||158,488 |
|Total liabilities and shareholder's equity||$||2,125,343 ||$||885,198 |
|Net interest income||$||85,790 ||$||95,772 |
|Spread on average interest-bearing funds||4.0 ||%||10.6 ||%|
|Net interest margin||4.1 ||%||11.1 ||%|
|Return on assets||2.4 ||%||5.7 ||%|
|Return on equity||27.2 ||%||31.6 ||%|
|Equity to assets||8.9 ||%||17.9 ||%|
|Equity to assets (excluding PPP loans)||24.6 ||%||17.9 ||%|
WebBank has several lending arrangements with companies where it originates credit card and other loans for consumers and small businesses. These loans are classified as held for sale and are typically sold after origination.
The following table presents the effects of changing rates and volumes on WebBank's net interest income for the periods indicated. The rate column shows the effects attributable to changes in rate (changes in rate multiplied by prior volume). The volume column shows the effects attributable to changes in volume (changes in volume multiplied by prior rate). The total column represents the sum of the prior columns. For purposes of this table, changes attributable to both rate and volume, which cannot be segregated, have been allocated proportionately, based on the changes due to rate and the changes due to volume.
|Year Ended December 31,|
|2020 vs 2019||2019 vs 2018|
|Due to Volume||Due to Rate||Total||Due to Volume||Due to Rate||Total|
|Loans receivable||$||(9,488)||$||(15,571)||$||(25,059)||$||39,524 ||$||7,732 ||$||47,256 |
|PPP loans||14,941 ||— ||14,941 ||— ||— ||— |
|Held-to-maturity securities||(1,014)||(382)||(1,396)||358 ||349 ||707 |
|Available-for-sale investments||(15)||5 ||(10)||9 ||(17)||(8)|
|Federal funds sold||(9,265)||9,031 ||(234)||207 ||18 ||225 |
|Interest-bearing deposits||(426)||(2,348)||(2,774)||(1,593)||770 ||(823)|
|Total earning assets||(5,267)||(9,265)||(14,532)||38,505 ||8,852 ||47,357 |
|Savings accounts||1,190 ||(2,618)||(1,428)||986 ||853 ||1,839 |
|Time deposits||(4,216)||(3,673)||(7,889)||1,605 ||2,547 ||4,152 |
|Other borrowings||4,768 ||— ||4,768 ||— ||— ||— |
|Total funds||1,742 ||(6,291)||(4,549)||2,591 ||3,400 ||5,991 |
|Net variance||$||(7,009)||$||(2,974)||$||(9,983)||$||35,914 ||$||5,452 ||$||41,366 |
Balance Sheet Analysis
As of December 31, 2020, net loans accounted for 93% of WebBank's total assets, as compared to 77% at the end of 2019. The following table presents WebBank's loans outstanding by type of loan as of December 31, 2020 and the five most recent year-ends.
|As of December 31,|
|Real estate loans:|
|Commercial - owner occupied||$||209 ||— ||%||$||230 ||— ||%||$||252 ||0.1 ||%||$||272 ||0.1 ||%||$||604 ||0.4 ||%|
|Commercial - other||463 ||— ||%||429 ||0.1 ||%||380 ||0.1 ||%||296 ||0.1 ||%||266 ||0.2 ||%|
|Total real estate loans||672 ||— ||%||659 ||0.1 ||%||632 ||0.2 ||%||568 ||0.2 ||%||870 ||0.6 ||%|
|Commercial and industrial||2,279,672 ||90.6 ||%||251,349 ||32.2 ||%||146,758 ||28.0 ||%||84,726 ||30.8 ||%||50,564 ||32.6 ||%|
|Consumer loans||147,652 ||5.9 ||%||302,714 ||38.7 ||%||188,391 ||35.9 ||%||53,238 ||19.3 ||%||22,805 ||14.7 ||%|
|Loans held for sale||88,171 ||3.5 ||%||226,532 ||29.0 ||%||188,143 ||35.9 ||%||136,773 ||49.7 ||%||80,692 ||52.1 ||%|
|Total loans||2,516,167 ||100.0 ||%||781,254 ||100.0 ||%||523,924 ||100.0 ||%||275,305 ||100.0 ||%||154,931 ||100.0 ||%|
|Deferred fees and discounts||— ||— ||— ||— ||— |
|Allowance for loan losses||(27,059)||(36,682)||(17,659)||(5,237)||(1,483)|
|Total loans receivable, net||$||2,489,108 ||$||744,572 ||$||506,265 ||$||270,068 ||$||153,448 |
The following table includes a maturity profile for the loans that were outstanding as of December 31, 2020:
|Due During Years Ending December 31,||Real Estate||Commercial & Industrial||Consumer||Loans Held for Sale|
|2020||$||— ||$||221,469 ||$||23,510 ||$||88,171 |
|2021-2024||209 ||2,058,203 ||124,142 ||— |
|2025 and thereafter||463 ||— ||— ||— |
|Total||$||672 ||$||2,279,672 ||$||147,652 ||$||88,171 |
Nonperforming Lending Related Assets
Total nonaccrual loans were $0 at December 31, 2020 and 2019.
|As of December 31,|
|Commercial real estate - owner occupied||$||— ||$||— ||$||— ||$||— ||$||— |
|Commercial and industrial||— ||— ||— ||— ||— |
|Total||— ||— ||— ||— ||— |
|Accruing loans delinquent:|
|90 days or more||8,701 ||8,051 ||3,326 ||2,658 ||3 |
|Total||8,701 ||8,051 ||3,326 ||2,658 ||3 |
|Commercial real estate - owner occupied||— ||— ||— ||— ||— |
|Total||— ||— ||— ||— ||— |
|Total non-performing assets||$||8,701 ||$||8,051 ||$||3,326 ||$||2,658 ||$||3 |
|Total as a percentage of total assets||0.3 ||%||0.9 ||%||0.4 ||%||0.4 ||%||— ||%|
Summary of Loan Loss Experience
The methodologies used to estimate the allowance for loan losses ("ALLL") depend upon the impairment status and portfolio segment of the loan. Loan groupings are created for each loan class and are then graded against historical and industry loss rates. After applying historic loss experience, as described above, we review the quantitatively derived level of ALLL for each segment using qualitative criteria. We track various risk factors that influence our judgment regarding the level of the ALLL across the portfolio segments. The following table summarizes activity in WebBank's allowance for loan and lease losses for the periods indicated: